Lesson two distinction between stm and ltm
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Specification A – Models of Memory The multi-store model including concepts of encoding, capacity and duration. Strength and weaknesses of the model The working memory model including its strengths and weaknesses B – Memory in everyday life

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Lesson two distinction between stm and ltm

  • Specification

  • A – Models of Memory

  • The multi-store model including concepts ofencoding, capacity and duration. Strength and weaknesses of the model

  • The working memory model including its strengths and weaknesses

  • B – Memory in everyday life

  • Eyewitness testimony and factors affecting the accuracy of EWT including anxiety and age of witness

  • Misleading information and the use of cognitive interview

  • Strategies for memory improvement

Homework

Describe the evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM

Complete as much as possible of your key terms and key studies grids

Lesson Two: Distinction between STM and LTM

Starter

Make a list of things you think are in your LTM, and imagine some that could be in your STM


Lesson objectives
Lesson Objectives:

By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe the evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM


Key words to check you know by the end of the lesson
Key Words to check you know by the end of the lesson:

  • Capacity

  • Duration

  • Free Recall

  • Primacy

  • Recency

  • Serial Position Curve


Lesson two distinction between stm and ltm

Let’s do something to demonstrate short-term and long term memory – take the face test

Oh! And put your hand up when we get to the Free Recall Task…

http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/facemem.html


Demonstrating ltm
Demonstrating LTM memory – take the face test

  • Write down one statement/fact that you remember from primary school (i.e. something you learned about geography, history, maths…)

  • Why do you remember this?

  • Lets look at the distinction between STM & LTM…….

Free Recall Task


Glanzer and cunitz 1966
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) memory – take the face test

  • Functional dissociation experiment.

  • Try and remember the items as they appear.

  • Then (free recall) write down as many things as you can remember


Condition 1 no interference task
Condition 1 (no interference task) memory – take the face test

  • Distant

  • Stable

  • Cabbage

  • Mattress

  • Uncle

  • Minstrel

  • Question

  • Cottage

  • Bargain

  • Finger

  • Landscape

  • Future


Condition 2 interference task now
Condition 2 – (Interference task) Now …………. memory – take the face test

  • First count backwards in three’s for 30 seconds

  • Try and remember the items as they appear.

  • Then count backwards in sixes for 30 seconds


Condition 2 with interference task
Condition 2 (with interference task) memory – take the face test

  • Velvet

  • Stomach

  • Flower

  • Gossip

  • Chamber

  • Sandal

  • Warehouse

  • Village

  • Carpet

  • Favour

  • Lawful


Plot the position of each word in the list against how many of the participants recalled it
Plot the memory – take the face testposition of each word in the list against how many of the participants recalled it

Serial Position Demonstration

Position Recall cond. 1 Recall cond. 2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Probability correct

Serial position


Glanzer cunitz 1966

Primacy Effect: LTM memory – take the face test

Recency Effect: STM

Without interference task

With interference task

Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)

% recall by PPs

Position in word list


Glanzer cunitz 19661
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966) memory – take the face test

  • Results:

    • Participants recalled more words at beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list

    • The interference task removed the recency but not the primacy effect

  • Implies that primacy words were stored somewhere different to recency words


But how
But how? memory – take the face test

  • The recency effect – because words are still circulating in the STM and can be easily retrieved

  • The primacy effect – because words at the beginning of the list have rehearsed (repeated) and so have passed into LTM

  • Displacement - Words in the middle are poorly recalled, little time for rehearsal & therefore displaced by later items in the list

  • NOW – in your course pack grid write up what happened in this experiment.

  • Extension – explain the relation on the line graph p9


Issues in glanzer and cunitz study
Issues in Glanzer and Cunitz’ Study memory – take the face test

  • Methodology: Lab experiment

    • Reliability

    • Ecological Validity

  • Participants had to repeat the task many times – what effect do you think this could this have had on the results?

  • NOW - What other factors affect one part of the serial position but not the other? p9


Neuropsychological evidence
Neuropsychological Evidence memory – take the face test

  • People who have suffered brain damage

  • Selective Memory Loss – affecting one type of memory but not another

  • TYPE OF RESEARCH – Case studies

  • What are these? P121

  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this method of research in your course pack (10 minutes)


Lesson two distinction between stm and ltm
Task memory – take the face test

  • Now complete the sheet in your study pack on the cases of HM (Milner) and KF (Shallice & Warrington).

  • What evidence does the case of HM provide for functional dissociation? Discuss your answer with the person next to.


Alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer's Disease memory – take the face test

  • Early symptoms include severe memory impairment

  • WATCH CLIP: (19. Understanding Alzheimer's Disease Provides a clear demonstration of how the advent of new technologies has aided research into the etiology of disease.) http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1626

  • Patients are found to have low levels of the neurotransmitter – acetylcholine– compared to controls.

  • What did Drachman & Sahakian (1979) find out in their research? (Write this up on your study sheet)


Brain scanning techniques
Brain scanning techniques memory – take the face test

  • PET – Position emission Tomography

  • FMRI – Functional magnetic resonance imaging

  • Squire et al. (1992)

  • (Write this up on your study

  • sheet)

Activated LTM tasks

Activated in

STM tasks


Check your key words
Check your key words: memory – take the face test

  • Capacity

  • Duration

  • Free Recall

  • Primacy

  • Recency

  • Serial Position Curve


Check your understanding

Describe the evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM memory – take the face test

Check your understanding

  • In no more than 5 lines explain the evidence for separate memory stores

  • Test your memory - try not to look at your notes…..

    Can you suggest reasons why this task was difficult/easy for you.


Eye on the exam
Eye on the exam memory – take the face test

  • The following are all concepts related to memory:

    a.) Duration

    b.) Capacity

    c.) Encoding

    d.) Retrieval

    In the table below write which one of the concepts listed above (a,b,c, or d) matches each definition

  • Below is a table summarising the main differences between short term memory and long term memory. Complete the table (2 marks)