VocabularyLesson 1-15 "The finest words in the world are only vain sounds, if you cannot comprehend them."—Anatole France
Lesson 1A • Abstruse • Archaic • Assuage • Contentious • Depravity _____________________ KEY: Greek Latin • Disdain • Dormant • Enigmatic • Furtive • Fuse _____________________ Not a part of a morpheme
abstruse (ab STRUSE) a-, ab-, abs- (Latin) • away from, off • absolve, abrupt, absent Trud-, -trude, trus-, -trusion (Latin) • Thrust, push, shove • Abstrude, abstrusity, extrusive, inobtrusive, intrude
abstruse (ab STRUSE) • Definition: difficult to understand, recondite, concealed • Synonyms: complex, complicated, intricate, knotty • Derivatives: abstrusely, abstruseness • The preacher struggled to explain a particularly abstruse passage of text.
archaic (are KAY ik) Arch-, arche-, archae-, -arch (Greek) • chief, first, rule, ancient, primitive, original • archangel, architect, archaic, monarchy, matriarchy, patriarchy, Archeozoicera, archaeology, archeology -ic (Greek) • Adjective: quality, relation, pertaining to • Generic, academic, aerobic, genetic
archaic (are KAY ik) • Definition: antiquated, old, out of use • Synonyms: ancient, antique, obsolete, venerable • Derivatives: archaically, archaism, archaize, archaized, archaizing, archaizer • Shakespeare uses the archaic word "wherefore" where modern English speakers would use "why."
assuage (uh SWAYJ) A-, ad- (Latin) *changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t • to, toward, near, in addition to, by • aside, accompany, adjust, aggression, allocate, annihilate, affix, associate, attend, adverb Suad-, suas-, suav- (Latin) • suavis, "sweet"; suadere, "to advise"; "to make something pleasant to, to present in a pleasing manner"; hence "to recommend, to advise” • Persuade, suave, dissuade -age (Latin) • act of, process • Discourage, envisage
assuage (uh SWAYJ) • Definition: to ease, to mitigate, to make less painful or burdensome, to calm • Synonyms: allay, alleviate, lighten, soothe • Derivatives: assuaged, assuaging, assuagement, assuager • During the Civil War, surgeons used morphine to assuage the pain of battle wounds.
Contentious (kun TEN shus) com, con (Latin) • fully • complete, compel, conscious, condense, confess, confirm tend, tent, tens (Greek > Latin) • stretch, strain, to move in a certain direction, to hold out • tendency, extend, intend, contend, pretend, superintend, tender, extent, tension, pretense -ous, -eous, -ose, -ious (Latin) • Adjective: having the quality of, relating to • adventurous, courageous, verbose, fractious
Contentious (kun TEN shus) • Definition: quarrelsome, stirring controversy • Synonyms: bellicose, belligerent, pugnacious • Derivatives: contentiously, contentiousness, contention • The contentious customer insisted on arguing with the manager, even after his money had been refunded.
depravity (deh PRAV eh tee) de- (Latin) • down (to the bottom), wholly, entirely, completely *This is not the way that de is used in most English words • Deserve, decrease Prav- (Latin > Old French) • crooked, crookedness; perverted, vicious, wicked • Depravation, pravity -ity (Latin) • suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing act, state, quality, property, or condition corresponding to an adjective • Abnormality, affinity, dexterity, enmity
depravity (deh PRAV eh tee) • Definition: moral corruption, a wicked or perverse act • Synonyms: abasement, corruption, debasement, debauchery, perversion, vitiation • Derivatives: deprave, depraver, depravement, depraved • Stealing from helpless elderly people requires unimaginable depravity.
disdain (dis DANE) dis,di, dif (Latin) • not, opposite of, reverse, separate, deprive of, away • dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, divide, disconnect, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, disarray dign, dain(Latin) • worthy; to deem worthy or fit • Deign, dainty, dignity, dignitary
disdain (dis DANE) • Definition: intense dislike; to treat with scorn or contempt, to reject as unworthy • Synonyms: (to be) arrogant, haughty, high-handed, insolent, lordly, supercilious • Derivatives: disdained, disdaining, disdainer, disdainful, disdainfully, disdainfulness • She treats liars and gossips with disdain.
dormant (DOR munt) Dorm, dormi (Latin) • sleep • dormant, dormitory -ant, ants (Latin) • a person who, the thing which; people who, things which • important, dependent, convenient
dormant (DOR munt) • Definition: inactive, sleeping • Synonyms: abeyant, latent, quiescent • Derivatives: dormancy • Maybe if I take a painting class, I'll awaken some dormant talent I didn't even know I had!
Enigmatic (en ig MAT ik) Enigma (Greek > Latin) • dark saying, riddle, fable, to speak in riddles • Enigma, enigmatize, enigmatology -ic (Greek) • pertaining to; of the nature of, like • generic, academic, aerobic, genetic
Enigmatic (en ig MAT ik) • Definition: mysterious, inexplicable, puzzling • Synonyms: abstruse, ambiguous, cryptic, equivocal, obscure, recondite • Derivatives: enigma, enigmatical, enigmatically, enigmatize • He said, "We'll see," but I don't know what that enigmatic comment is supposed to mean.
Furtive (FUR tiv) Furtivus (Latin) • Stolen, theft, secret action -ive (Latin) • Inclined to, tending to • Festive, pensive, creative
Furtive (FUR tiv) • Definition: secret in an underhanded way, stealthy • Synonyms: clandestine, covert, stealthy, surrepetitious, underhanded • Derivatives: furtively, furtiveness • He glanced furtively at his neighbor's test paper, hoping the teacher wouldn't notice.
fuse (FYOOZ) fus-, fun-, fund-, fut-, found- (Latin > French) • Pour, melt, blend • Affuse, transfusion, fusion
fuse (FYOOZ) • Definition: to mix or to join (usually by melting) • Synonyms: amalgamate, blend, coalesce, commingle, merge, mingle • Derivatives: fused, fusing, fuses, fusibility, fusible • To make steel, the manufacturer fuses iron with other metals.
Lesson 1B • Insipid • Loathe • Mitigate • Nullify • Obscure _____________________ KEY: Greek Latin Old English • Recant • Reprove • Slothful • Taciturn • Vilify _____________________ Not a part of a morpheme
insipid (in SIP id) in-1 (Latin) *Thisin-, "not", becomes i- before gn, as with "ignore"; il- before l, as with illiterate; im- before b, m; and p, as with imbalance, immiscible, impecunious; and ir- before r, as with irrefragable. • no, not • Ignorant, illiterate, inaccurate, irrational sap-, sapi-, sip- (Latin) • wise, wisdom, to be wise, to have wisdom; to know, knowledge; to taste [of], to perceive • Homo sapiens, insipient, resipiscence, sapid -id (Latin) (there is also an unrelated Greek –id suffix) • a suffix; meaning, state, condition; having, being, pertaining to, tending to, inclined to • Avid, florid, frigid
insipid(in SIP id) • Definition: boring and stupid • Synonyms: banal, flat, inane, jejune, vapid • Derivatives: insipidity, insipidly, insipidness • If you want people to think you are smart, don’t make insipid statements that make you sound stupid.
loathe (LOETH) Loath (Old English) *Loath is an adjective that can stand alone in English. • hateful, hostile; repulsed; averse, disinclined
loathe (LOETH) • Definition: to detest • Synonyms: abhor, abominate • Derivatives: loathful, loathing, loathingly, loathness, loathsome • I loathe tapioca pudding; I can't think of any food I detest more.
Mitigate (MIT uh gate) miti- (Latin) • make mild or gentle; mild, gentle, soft • Immitigability, mitigant, mitigator, unmitigated ag-, agen-, act-, agi-, agit- (Latin) • to set in motion, to shake; to drive; to do, to act, to lead, to conduct, to guide • Activate, action, exact, agent, agile -igate, -egate (Latin) • suffix; meaning, to make, to drive • Instigate, navigate, obligate, relegate
Mitigate(MIT uh gate) • Definition: to cause to become less harsh or hostile; to make less severe • Synonyms: allay, alleviate, assuage, lighten • Derivatives: mitigation, mitigatedly, mitigative, mitigator, mitigatory • The gentle sun mitigated the chill in the December air.
nullify (NUL eh fie) nul-, null-, nulli- (Latin) • not one, not any, none, nothing • Annul, null, nullifier, nullity Fac-, feas-, -feat, -fect, -feit, -fic-, -fy, (Latin) • to make, to do, to build, to cause, to produce; forming, shaping • Affect, aficionado, disqualify
nullify(NUL eh fie) • Definition: to cause not to be in effect, to negate • Synonyms: abrogate, annul, invalidate • Derivatives: nullified, nullifying, nullification, nullificationist, nullificator, nullifier • If anyone cheats on a state test, the state may nullify the scores of everyone in the room!
obscure (ub SKYOOR) obscur- (Latin) • dark, dusky; indistinct, uncertain, unintelligible • Osbcurant, obscurer, obscurity -ure (Latin) • a suffix that denotes an act or result, result of the act of • Composure, exposure, disclosure
obscure(ub SKYOOR) • Definition: difficult to see, vague • Synonyms: abstruse, ambiguous, cryptic, enigmatic, equivocal, recondite • Derivatives: obscuration, obscurative, obscuredly, obscurely, obscurement, obscureness, obscurity • The street sign was obscure, so we missed our turn and got lost.
recant (reh KANT) re-, red- (Latin) • back, backward, again; used as a prefix • Recalcitrant, recapitulate, recede, receive, reciprocate cant-, chant- (Latin) • sing, singing; a song • Canto, chant, chanter
recant(reh KANT) • Definition: to withdraw or to repudiate a statement or belief, revoke • Synonyms: abjure, forswear, renounce, retract • Derivatives: recantation, recanter • When threatened by the Nazis, many Jews were forced to recant their religious beliefs.
reprove (reh PROOV) re-, red- (Latin) • back, backward, again; used as a prefix • Recalcitrant, recapitulate, recede, receive, reciprocate prob-, proba-, probat-, prov- (Latin) • upright, good, honest; to try, to test, to examine; to demonstrate • Approval, disapprove, approbation
reprove (reh PROOV) • Definition: to scold or to rebuke for a misdeed usually with kindly intent • Synonyms: admonish, castigate, chastise, chide, rebuke, reproach • Derivatives: reprovable, reprovingly, reproving, reproved, reproves, reproof • "No, no," she reproved, taking the shoe away from the puppy and giving him a toy instead.
slothful (SLOTH ful) Sloth (Old English) • Slowness, tardiness, sluggishness -ful, -full (Old English) • completely, full, perfect, entire, utter • Beautiful, wonderful, plentiful,
slothful(SLOTH ful) • Definition: lazy, indolent • Synonyms: bovine • Derivatives: slothfully, slothfulness, sloth • She's too slothful to get up and even pick up her clothes, much less clean the house.
taciturn (TAS eh turn) tacit-, taci-, tace- (Latin) • silent, silence; unspoken; quiet • Reticent, tacit, tacenda -urnus (Latin) • Adj. suffix of time
taciturn(TAS eh turn) • Definition: quiet, not verbose, maintaining silence • Synonyms: reserved, reticent • Derivatives: tacit, tacitly, tacitness, taciturnity, taciturnly • Because he is generally a taciturn man, when he finally says a few words, we listen.
vilify (VIL eh fie) vili-, vil- (Latin) • cheap, worthless, base, common; low status, low quality • Revile, vile, vilipend Fac-, feas-, -feat, -fect, -feit, -fic-, -fy, (Latin) • to make, to do, to build, to cause, to produce; forming, shaping • Affect, aficionado, disqualify
vilify(VIL eh fie) • Definition: to malign, to defame, to utter abusive statements against • Synonyms: asperse, calumniate, denigrate, traduce • Derivatives: vilification, vilifier, vilifying, vilifyingly • When the scandal broke, the mayor was vilified by his enemies in every newspaper in town.
Lesson 2A • Affable • Aloof • Aversion • Banal • Capricious _____________________ KEY: Greek Latin Old English Old French • Contrite • Dawdle • Debilitate • Disparage • Dogmatic _____________________ Not a part of a morpheme Unknown Origin
affable (AF uh bul) A-, ad- (Latin) *changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t • to, toward, near, in addition to, by • aside, accompany, adjust, aggression, allocate, annihilate, affix, associate, attend, adverb fa-, fam-, fan-, fat-, -fess; fab-, fabul-; fari (Latin) • talk, telling, speak, say, spoken about; acknowledge • Confess, defame, fable -able (Latin) • suffix; expressing capacity, fitness to do that which can be handled or managed, suitable skills to accomplish something; capable of being done, something which can be finished, etc • Capable, abominable, acceptable
affable (AF uh bul) • In latin, ad means to; fari means speak; when you can speak to someone, it means that they are approachable; affable means easy to approach, friendly
affable (AF uh bul) • Definitions: friendly, courteous, amiable, cordial, genial, gracious, sociable • Synonyms: cordial, genial, gracious, sociable • Derivatives: affability, affableness, affably • She was so affable and helpful that I felt comfortable with her right away.
aloof (uh LOOF) a- (Old English) • This version of the a prefix can mean “on” or “of” but generally this version of the prefix serves no practical language purpose • Asleep, abroad, afoot, anew Loof (Middle English) • Windward direction
aloof (uh LOOF) • E: In old english, a means on; loof is the weather side of a ship; a sailor soon learned to distance himself from this side of the ship