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  1. Schedule • Today and Tuesday, 11/26 • Certification and licensing of behavior analysts • Professional ethics • Thursday, 11/28: No class, Thanksgiving • Tuesday, 12/03, E8 • 15 points: completion of the on-line training program • 20 points: exam over certification and licensing, and professional ethics

  2. Schedule • Thursday, 12/05 • Return of E8 • Special grade sheet for ME2, can you benefit from taking ME2, and if so how many pts do you need? • ME2 study objectives handed out • No lecture • Good day to do course evaluations during class time

  3. Schedule • Make-up Exam 2 (Units 5 - 8) • Wednesday, 12/11 • 2:45-4:45 PM: Be here at 2:30 • I will not permit anyone to start the exam after a student has finished or left the room with the answers • You will receive a zero on the exam if you come late and ask to start taking it after a student has left the room with the answers

  4. Unit 8: Online Ethics Training Program • Online Training Program: citiprogram.org • You must hand in a computer print out that you have completed the online training on the day of U8 exam (no electronic copies via email) • For the computer print out – MODULES COMPLETED, which lists the score you received on the quiz for each module • If you have already completed this training, you only need to print off a copy of the page that indicates that you have completed it. You don’t need to do it again. • Completion criterion: average of 80% across all quizzes. Important: Quizzes can be retaken at the end of the module, but you cannot go back and retake quizzes after you have told the program you have finished the quiz/module and have moved onto the next module. Thus, you must monitor your quiz scores as you move through the program to make sure you don’t come up short of an average of 80%. (cont. on next slide)

  5. Unit 8: Online Ethics Training Program • If you do not hand this in on (or before) the day of E8 - no credit. I will not accept late assignments. • See study objectives for grading criteria • See study objectives for instructions on logging onto the training program

  6. Certification vs. Licensing • Certification is voluntary, licensing is legally required • The Behavior Analysis Certification Board is the organization that certifies behavior analysts (it is independent from ABAI) • Individual states pass license laws, in contrast • Because of this, just like the license laws for clinical psychologists, those laws vary from state to state • Compliance is overseen by licensing boards established by the state • There are legal penalties for violating these laws • National certification began in 1998 • Licensing has begun only recently, but • 10 states now have licensing laws • 9 additional states have laws pending/in process • A MI law is currently being drafted by the state legislature (encountering some controversy and confusion over the licensing laws because they are so different from state to state, and we are just beginning to see some of the problems/ramifications, more on that later)

  7. Certification • Certification was developed to meet the needs of behavior analysts, state governments, and consumers: who is qualified to do and call themselves a behavior analyst? • Sets “minimum” standards for behavior analysts • Certification is voluntary, not legally required • That is, you do not have to be certified to call yourself a behavior analyst or practice behavior analysis • Primarily relevant for those who work in human services (work with children diagnosed with autism or children and adults with developmental disabilities) • Thus, behavior analysts who work in other fields, such as organizational behavior management and applied animal training, often do not seek certification

  8. Certification • While not required, almost all human service organizations that provide behavioral services to at-risk individuals require employees with an MA or Ph.D. to be certified in order to be hired • If you are planning on working in human services, you should plan on becoming certified • At this point, direct care staff and technicians do not have be certified, but the BACB is initiating a new credential: Registered Behavioral Technician

  9. Certification • Two levels of certification • Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst (BCaBA) • Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) • Added a BCBA-D to signify doctoral level with a minimum of 10 years of experience post-Ph.D.

  10. SO1: Requirements for Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst • BA degree in a related field: Does not have to be in behavior analysis or psychology • 180 hours of specific coursework in behavior analysis (following details not required for the exam) • Ethics (hence this unit): 15 hours • Concepts and principles: 45 hours • Research methods: 15 hours • Applied behavior analysis: 90 hours • Discretionary: 15 hours (Requirements fall into five categories; hours are not credit hours but contact hours)

  11. SO1: Requirements for Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst • Experience requirement NFE: This ranges from 500 to 1000 hours of supervised experience depending upon the nature of the experience and intensiveness of supervision. Supervisor must be a BCBA. • Pass the certification exam administered by the BACB

  12. SO2: Before applying for the exam which of the requirements must be met? • All of the other three • BA degree* • 180 hours of coursework in behavior analysis • Experience requirement *Don’t forget this one if I ask this on the exam

  13. SO3: When you graduate from WMU with a BS in the behavioral science major, which requirements are met? • Only the bachelors degree requirement • Not for exam: • The BACB has approved a sequence of our graduate courses, however, we have not, to date, sought approval for our undergraduate courses • Most of our students get certified only after obtaining their MA degree and often skip BCaBA certification and go straight to BCBA certification • It is hard to acquire the experience requirements necessary to become certified at either level while in school • Time and effort it takes the students • We do not have sufficient faculty to supervise all of the students who might like to fulfill this requirement • Some MA programs, such as UNT, do require students to fulfill the experience requirement as part of the MA, but that increases the number of credit hours required to complete the degree; 45-48 credit hours, compared to 36

  14. SOs 4 and 5 4A. How long does the original certification last? • 2 years 4B. What must be done to maintain certification? • Renew certification each year by application • Apply for recertification after 2nd year SO5. What are the recertification requirements? • Complete 20 hours of continuing education every two years (4 must be in ethics) or • Retake and pass the certification examination

  15. SO6: Requirements for certification as a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) • MA degree in (a) behavior analysis, psychology, or education or (b) a degree program that has a couse sequence approved by the BACB • 270 hours in specific course work at the graduate level in behavior analysis (a sequence of our graduate level courses have been pre-approved to meet this requirement) • Experience requirements (750 - 1500 hours of supervised experience) D. Pass the certification exam

  16. SO7: Not for ExamRenewal and Recertification: Similar to BCaBA* • How long does the original certification last? • 2 years • What must be done to maintain certification? • Renew certification each year by application • Apply for recertification after 2nd year • What must be done to obtain recertification after 2nd year? • Complete 32 classroom hours of continuing education in behavior analysis (4 must be in ethics) or • Retake and pass the certification examination *The only difference between BCaBA and BCBA, number of CEUs required. If a BCBA is supervising individuals pursuing certification, he/she must also complete 3 credit hours of supervision as part of the CEU hours.

  17. Licensing • Historically, the purpose of licensing has been to protect the public from incompetent professionals (charlatans) • Within psychology and human services, the laws are primarily designed to protect at-risk individuals • Clinical psychologists have to be licensed • School psychologists have to be licensed • Typically, I/O psychologists do not

  18. SO8: Two main reasons for BA license laws • To protect at-risk individuals and integrity of the field of behavior analysis in general • Push for licensing came from behavior analysts who work in human services or with other at-risk individuals • States began to pass autism insurance laws to cover ABA services • Needed a way to determinewho was competent to provide those services and thus (b) who could receive reimbursement (these laws do not pertain to the experimental analysis of behavior; directed at applied services)

  19. SO9: Two main types of license laws • Broad title and/or practice laws • You cannot call yourself a behavior analyst and/or practice behavior analysis unless you are licensed • Six states have passed this type of law • Arizona, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Virginia, Wisconsin • Restrictive laws • Only behavior analysts who provide services to autistic children and/or individuals with pervasive behavioral disabilities need to be licensed • Four states have passed this type of law • Nevada, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island (the wording of the laws do differ, and others might object to my categories, but I am attempting to just give you a broad overview – things are complicated right now. First type are controversial)

  20. NFE: “Oddities” and other regulations • Title license law: Wisconsin • You can practice behavior analysis without a license but you cannot call yourself a behavior analyst • No law: Certification is sufficient: W.VA. (6/12) • Regulations specifically tied to autism insurance laws (some are written into the insurance laws) • Autism service providers that provide ABA do not have to be licensed but must be board certified in order to be reimbursed • 16 states have these type of regulations

  21. NFE: How will these laws affect you? • In most cases, the licensing process is the same as the certification process • Some laws require certification to be licensed • Some laws permit licensing of individuals with equivalent training and experience • Regardless, if you are certified, in most states you will immediately qualify for licensing • If you plan to work in human services, you should become certified • You will meet the legal requirements for licensing in states that have license laws • You will meet the regulatory requirements in states that don’t have license laws and have many more job opportunities (basically, the states have determined that the certification process is already a good process, no sense creating something new, cont. on next slide)

  22. NFE: How will these laws affect you? If you plan to work in applied areas other than with at-risk individuals, keep tuned, but my best guess is that you will not need to be licensed (or certified). But I could be wrong. • The BACB created a model license law to help states develop appropriate wording • The first model law was a broad title and practice law, thus that is what many states passed • Based on concerns expressed by some behavior analysts the model license law was revised in 10/12 • One of the revisions was potential exemption for behavior analysts who practice with “nonpatients” for states who wish to adopt that language

  23. NFE: How will these laws affect you? The exemption language for states that wish to adopt it: A behavior analyst who practices with nonhuman or nonpatient clients and consumers, including, but not limited to applied animal behaviorists, and practitioners of organizational behavior management. Thus, if states adopt this language, the laws would fall into the category of “restrictive laws” – laws that only cover applied behavior analysts who work in clinical settings. (moving forward, I expect most states will adopt this language; hard to know what will happen in those states that have already passed broad title and practice laws without such an exemption)

  24. SO10: Professional Ethics • Materials in the course pack • All of the 12 ethical task statements for behavior analysts and the certification exam – not for the 4600 exam, just FYI • Dickinson article • Task statements (6 of the 12) for the 4600 exam • Explanations of the ethical guidelines for behavior analysts relevant to each task • Case study examples • Declaration of Professional Practices and Procedures for Behavior Analysts (to give clients before working with them – not for exam just FYI) • Basically a contract with the client defining the responsibilities of each party – both the behavior analyst and the client

  25. Exam Questions (also indicated in S10) • I will give you a copy of the six task statements • You do not have to memorize them! • I will ask two types of questions about these or similar case studies (give you options, e.g., answer any 5 out of 8) • Did the behavior analyst act ethically? Why or why not? • Which task statement or statements are relevant to this case study and why? • A particular case study often involves more than one task statement. • Short open-ended questions such as: • What should the person in the case study do? • Is it OK for the person in the case study to start the intervention or research, or is there something else the person must do before starting?

  26. Ethics for Behavior Analysts, 2005, 2011 Mary Burch Jon Bailey

  27. Task Statement 1-1 • Solicit or otherwise influence clients only through the use of truthful and accurate representations of intervention efficacy (effectiveness) and one’s personal competence (within his/her area of specialization) in applied behavior analysis. • The second part means “don’t exaggerate your credentials/experience within your area of specialization (autism, OBM, applied animal training, etc.) (truth in advertising; I am emphasizing this because task 2 deals with restricting activities to your own area of expertise within behavior analysis; difference is a bit confusing)

  28. Case Study 1A Dr. B, a BCBA-D, was consulting at a residential facility for clients diagnosed with developmental disabilities that were severe enough to prevent them from living at home or in the community. This was a new client for Dr. B. and he wanted to demonstrate how behavior analysis could help the clients. One day, as soon as Dr. B. arrived, the administrator approached him and began congratulating him on successfully treating one of the most difficult clients in the facility. Dr. B. then discussed the case with the student who was helping him. The student told him that, in fact, baseline was still underway and the treatment plan had not yet been executed. • What should Dr. B. do? • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-1?

  29. Case Study 1A • What should Dr. B. do? He should meet with the administrator and explain that no credit was due. That, in fact, baseline was still underway and the treatment plan had not been implemented. • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-1? Solicit or otherwise influence clients only through the use of truthful and accurate representations of intervention efficacy

  30. Case Study 1B Dr. G. was a school psychologist working with a private tutoring service to help children who were having trouble in school. Some of the children were diagnosed with ADHD, some with dyslexia. Dr. G. conducted a controlled study with 2 of the ADHD clients and 2 of the dyslexia clients. She found her behavioral teaching methods were much more effective for teaching these children how to read and do math than the methods being used. Dr. G. was excited as was the director of the tutoring service. The director sent press releases to several magazines and newspapers. Dr. G. found out that the director had written the following headline: “Dramatic New Advances in Education: Teaching Methods at ABC Tutoring Cure ADHD and Dyslexia.” • What should Dr. G. do? • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-1?

  31. Case Study 1B • What should Dr. G. do? She should immediately contact the director and explain that the headline was not appropriate. She should rewrite the headline and immediately contact all of the magazines and newspapers and tell them not to print the article. If it is too late to stop publication, Dr. G. should request that a follow-up piece be published correcting the misconception that it cured ADHD and dyslexia and talk about the limitations of the study (only dealt with 2 ADHD students and 2 dyslexia students, no evidence that ADHD or dyslexia were “cured.”). • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-1? Behavior analysts should be truthful about the effectiveness of an intervention and should not exaggerate their effectiveness.

  32. Case Study 1C Jake was a student in a Ph.D. program in Organizational Behavior Management. He wanted to supplement his income by consulting with local companies. Jake had an MA degree in OBM and had worked with a number of companies doing projects in classes arranged by his professors where he was supervised by both a person in the organization and the professor. He had also completed two practicum courses in organizations under the supervision of his advisor. When he developed his resume, under “experience” he listed the companies he had worked with and the projects he had completed for each. • Is there anything else Jake should include on his resume? • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-1?

  33. Case Study 1C • Is there anything else Jake should include on his resume? Yes. He should indicate that the projects were completed as part of a course, listing both the professor and on-site individual as supervisors. • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-1? The behavior analyst must give the client an accurate and truthful representation of his/her credentials when soliciting clients. He is exaggerating his personal competence within his area of specialization, which is OBM. Solicitation and public statements include personal resumes and curriculum vita. Without the information above, it appears as though Jake was an independent consultant for the organizations. That is misleading. 3. How does this situation apply/generalize to students applying for jobs or to graduate school?

  34. Task Statement 1-2 Practice within one’s limits of professional competence in applied behavior analysis and obtain consultation, supervision, training, or make referrals as necessary. • Unlike Task 1, this task deals with competence in other areas of behavior analysis and other professional areas • An OBM person accepting/giving advice about a child diagnosed with autism • A person trained in autism accepting a client or giving advice about a client who has a brain-injury • A behavior analyst making a “diagnosis” of autism • A behavior analyst making suggestions about diet and nutrition as a way to “cure” autism • A student trained in behavior analysis doing sensory integration, etc. Remember: Task1 deals with one’s competence within one’s own area of specialization

  35. Task Statement 1-2 • Some discriminations are easy to make, such as indicated earlier - an OBM specialist should not accept an autistic child as a client or give advice about how to deal with an autistic child (or vice versa) • Some discriminations are harder to make • A student who is/has taken general behavior analysis courses: If that individual is also an athlete, I see no problem whatsoever with that individual working with a local coach of an athletic team, a health club, or a senior citizen’s home that has an exercise room for its residents and encourages them to develop exercise programs (however, recognizing the need for medical approval first)

  36. Case Study 2A Martin, a BCBA, moved to a new city to work at a large long-term care facility for adults with head injuries. Martin’s past experience was limited to clients who were developmentally disabled. Some of his clients did engage in aggressive behaviors. At the new facility, Martin was assigned to work with Dan, a 23-year old who had a severe head injury. Due to the head injury, Dan engaged in violent and dangerous outbursts of aggression. Dan’s outbursts had resulted in medical treatment for a few staff members. Martin was eager to help Dan and began reading everything he could about how to treat this type of aggression that was directly due to Martin’s head injury. • Is there anything else Martin should be doing? • Why is this relevant to task statement 2?

  37. Case Study 2A • Is there anything else Martin should be doing? Even though Martin has worked with aggressive clients before, because he has not worked with clients with head injuries, he needs to consult with a BCBA who is an expert in the treatment of head injury and aggression. If there is no such person at the facility, he needs to find someone in the area to supervise him. He should do this because of the ethical issues involved; there could be liability issues as well if he does not. (ethics and law are sometimes the same; sometimes not) • Why is this relevant to task statement 2? Must practice within one’s area of competence and obtain consultation and supervision, if necessary. (many of us consult with one another – recently consulted with two Ph.D. level behavior analysts in human service settings: one had run into a union problem with the staff that enabled the staff to implement procedures not good for the clients; incentive system for clinical staff.

  38. Case Study 2B Melinda, a BCaBA, is working with a child in an after-school clinic affiliated with a university. The child is beginning to engage in self-injurious behavior and the parents are concerned that the behaviors may escalate into more severe types of behaviors. Melinda has implemented a behavioral program to reduce/eliminate the self-injurious behaviors. One of the parents asks Melinda, “Does my child’s self-injurious behavior indicate that he may have attention deficit disorder?” • 1. How should Melinda respond? • 2. Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-2?

  39. Case Study 2B • How should Melinda respond? That diagnosis is outside my area of expertise. Your child’s doctor would be better able to help you determine that. 2. Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-2? Practice within one’s limits of professional training and education and make referrals when appropriate. Other potential questions that may come up with a parent: Should I put my child on a special diet? Refer to pediatrician or nutritionist and perhaps relevant literature What should I say to convince the judge in my child custody case that I am the best parent to promote this ABA program for my child? I can’t give you advice on that - I suggest you talk to your lawyer. One of the problems here is that you may not have much time to think about your reply.

  40. Task Statement 1-4: (I am not covering 1-3 from the guidelines) Obtain informed consent within applicable legal and ethical standards. • Provide a written description of all procedures and obtain consent from all clients before research, assessment, intervention, and changes in intervention. • When working with clients, describe procedures in language they can understand and obtain assent if “consent” cannot be given. (identical to informed consent for research ps)

  41. Case Study 4A Susan is a thirty-eight-year-old woman with developmental disabilities. She lives at home with her mother who is her legal guardian and she attends a vocational training program. Susan receives behavioral programming as needed. Angie is a BCBA who works with clients at the vocational program. Angie has been asked to provide behavioral services for Susan. It seems as though Susan has been spending most of her money on junk food. Then, so that she has money, she has been asking staff to give her loans or pay her for small favors. This behavior has escalated to the point that at times, Susan has no money for bus transportation and she is making everyone uncomfortable with her begging. Because begging is not an appropriate behavior, and will interfere with Susan’s being promoted to do more complex work which could lead to a “real” job outside of the vocational training center, Angie feels that it would be okay to instruct the staff to immediately begin treating begging with social disapproval. • Can Angie implement this program immediately? • Why or why not? 3. Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-4?

  42. Case Study 4A • No. • She must get consent from Susan’s mother before implementing any program. Angie needs to outline the objectives of the behavior plan in writing for Susan’s mother and have her sign the consent form. If Mom doesn’t consent, she cannot implement the program, even if it is in the best interest of Susan to do that. 3. Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-4? Give procedures in writing and obtain informed consent (in in writing) before implementing any research or behavior change procedure.

  43. Case Study 4B Sarah is working in a special education classroom. Students spend part of the school day in the classroom and they are mainstreamed the remainder of the day. Jessie is a tall, lanky twelve-year-old who swears and becomes disruptive in class. She is on a behavior program that worked well until recently. Knowing her clients very well, Sarah quickly figured out that Jessie was bored with the reinforcers. Sarah planned some changes in the intervention, including changing the reinforcers, reinforcement schedule, and adding consequences for misbehavior. 1. Because the behavior plan was already in effect, the goals of the program were clear, and the changes were only slight changes , Sarah was certain that all of the permission forms that were previously signed would cover the changes. Was she correct in assuming this? 2. Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-4?

  44. Case Study 4B 1. No. 2. Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-4? When a behavior program is modified, the behavior analyst needs to explain the modifications and obtain consent again. In this case, consent would come from the parents. The changes should also be explained to Jessie. (no BCaBA, or BCBA: that is OK; it is not unethical for a person who is not certified to do BA with at-risk individuals; however, it would be both unethical and illegal if the state had a license law and Sarah was not licensed.)

  45. Case Study 4C Shakira was working on her master’s degree in behavior analysis. Although not her thesis, she wanted to do some pilot research in a high school that was in a low-income neighborhood. She began volunteering at the school and she established an excellent working relationship with the principal and some of the teachers. She met with the school and got approval to conduct her research. Because this was not an official psychology department assignment and because this was a pilot study, she told the school officials that she was going to be “flexible, implementing procedures that would become apparent as the baseline data became available.” The school (the teachers and principal) said they understood the need for this flexibility and looked forward to seeing what Shakira would do. 1. Was Shakira ready to begin his pilot research after obtaining approvals from the school principal and the teachers involved in the study?

  46. Case Study 4C • No. Shakira needed an approval of the HSIRB before starting any research in the schools. She would also need to obtain consent from the parents. Finally, the procedures must be planned and written. The approval from school personnel was not sufficient. Two-step consent process: first for baseline, then for the intervention after she decided what type of program would be appropriate • Why is this related to task statement 1-4? Must obtain the written consent of the participant or guardian before beginning research and also must conduct research with humans and nonhumans in accordance with the local human research board (if there is one) and the HSIRB for the academic institution with which the student is affiliated.

  47. Task Statement 1-7 Identify and reconcile contingencies that compromise the practitioner-client covenant, including relationships among the practitioner, the client and other parties. • Again, sometimes this is an easy discrimination to make, sometimes it is more difficult • Is it OK to use behavioral principles to help out a grandparent or an ill aunt or uncle, even though you are not trained in gerontology or behavioral medicine? • What are the limits? • When would it be OK, when wouldn’t it be OK?

  48. Case Study 7A A BCBA who specializes in behavioral gerontology was asked by her sister to develop an ABA program for her their elderly mother. The sister lives about 60 miles away and the mother has a separate apartment in the sister’s house. The mother had lung surgery about three months ago. The physician and surgeon have given the mother a “clean bill of health” - that is she has no lingering medical problems. However, the mother has stopped engaging in many activities she used to enjoy, and is beginning to just sit around the house complaining – usually about the sister. The sisters have a very close relationship. The BCBA is very concerned about her mother and also wants to help her sister. She is very grateful that her sister has taken on the role of primary care-taker for the mother. • What is the BCBA’s most appropriate course of action? • Why?

  49. Case Study 7A • The BCBA should locate another BCBA in the area and refer the sister to that individual. There is too much potential for conflict within the family - either between the mother and the BCBA or between the BCBA and her sister. This would require a long-term intervention. What if there wasn’t another BCBA in the area? What should the BCBA do then? • Why is this relevant to task statement 1-7? Conflicts of interest here. The behavior analyst must always be sensitive to potential harmful effects of personal and social relationships on their work and on those persons with whom they deal. Behavior analysts provide behavioral services only in the context of a defined, professional or scientific relationship role.

  50. Case Study 7B Bill was a twenty-seven-year-old, single BCBA who worked with clients and conducted research in a large state institution. Bill had a good working relationship with the local university’s psychology and special education programs. One semester, Bill found himself attracted to Kristi, one of the college students he was supervising. The attraction seemed mutual because Kristi “flirted” with Bill and made it a point to let Bill know she was single and available for dating. • Because the feelings seemed to be mutual, was there any problem with Bill asking Kristi for a date? • Why is this relevant to Task Statement 1-7?