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Basic Info about Gerunds and Gerund Phrases • Gerunds - words that look like verbs and act like a nouns. • You can spot a gerund by looking for a verb + ing that is acting as a noun. • Swimming is fun. • Swim is a verb. Swimming is a verb with ing. In this sentence swimming is acting as a noun. • Gerund Phrases- contains a gerund and words that modify and complement it. • Running marathons is my favorite activity.
Types of gerunds • There are 4 types of gerund phrases • Subjects • Predicate Nominative • Direct object • Object of preposition
Gerunds as Subjects • A gerund (or gerund phrase) can be the subject of a sentence. • Gardening is my favorite leisure activity. • The gerund Gardening is the subject of the sentence. • Decorating our house has been a family tradition at Christmas for years. • Decorating our house is the gerund phrase that is the subject of the sentence. • Roaring filled the air at the track. • Roaring is a gerund used as the subject. • Usually found at the beginning of the sentence.
Gerunds as Predicate Nominative • Most of it was cheering. • Cheering is a gerund used as the predicate nominative. • Gerund as a predicate nominative is a noun found in the predicate. • A predicate nominative completes the meaning of a linking verb.
Gerunds as Direct Objects • Mary hates biting her fingernails. • Biting her finger nails is the gerund phrase. It is a direct object in this sentence. • Remember direct objects can be found by: subject +verb+ who or what (direct object)? • Mary=subject, hates= verb, Mary hates what? = biting her fingernails (direct object). • We could hear thundering. • Thundering is a gerund used as a direct object. • Receives the action of the verb.
Gerunds as Objects of Preposition • When the cars entered the track, we turned our attention toward racing. • Racing is the gerund used as the object of the preposition. • Make sure it is in a prepositional phrase by finding the preposition.
Practice: Find the gerund phrase and determine the type. • Hours of editing the newspaper ruined their day. • Hanging pictures on the wall was more difficult than she had anticipated. • Try to slip away without telling your friends about it. • Each afternoon Tom enjoyed swimming a few laps. • Winning at poker makes Matt feel important. • I am demoting the officer for disobeying orders. • Without studying for the test, you are taking a big risk. • Abby is enjoying listening to Rolling Stones’ music.
Practice • Partner Work: • Write sentences using the following gerunds. • Be sure to write one sentence for each type of gerund phrase: Subject, Predicate Nominative, Direct Objects, Objects of Preposition. • Asking • Diving • Flying • Leaping • Marching • Skipping • Swinging • Tumbling • Twirling