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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System. Anatomy & Physiology. Heart song. Location of the heart. In mediastinum behind the sternum between 2 nd & 6 th ribs. Shifted to left. Posteriorly between 5 th to 8 th thoracic vertebrae

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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

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    1. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Anatomy & Physiology

    2. Heart song •

    3. Location of the heart • In mediastinum behind the sternum between 2nd & 6th ribs. Shifted to left. • Posteriorly between 5th to 8th thoracic vertebrae • Apex (lowest point) lies on diaphragm

    4. Pericardium • Sac covering the heart • Fibrous pericardium – tough, inelastic • Serous pericardium- 2 layers • Parietal layer- lines fibrous pericardium • Visceral layer (epicardium)-adheres to outside of heart; space between parietal & visceral layer contain small amount of fluid

    5. Function of pericardium • Provides protection against friction

    6. Layers of the heart • Epicardium (also the serous pericardium) • Myocardium-thick contractile layer of muscle cells • Endocardium-cover trabeculae (muscular projections); specialized folds of endocardium make up the major valves of heart

    7. Chambers of heart • Atria: upper chambers • Ventricles: lower chambers • Chambers are separated by an extension of heart wall, septum

    8. Atria • Receive blood from veins • Send blood to ventricles • Thin myocardial wall • Auricle: earlike flap protruding from each atrium

    9. Ventricles • Receive blood from the atria • Pump blood out of heart into arteries • Thicker myocardium • Myocardium of left ventricle thicker than right ventricle

    10. Heart valves • Permit flow of blood in one direction • Atrioventricular valves • Semilunar valves

    11. Atrioventricular valves • Made of flaps of endocardium • Flaps anchored to papillary muscle by chordae tendineae • Rt AV valve: tricuspid valve • Lt AV valve: mitral (bicuspid) valve

    12. Semilunar valves • Consists of half moon shaped flaps • Pulmonary semilunar valve: at the entrance to the pulmonary artery • Aortic semilunar valve: at the entrance to aorta

    13. Flow of blood through the heart

    14. Heart video •

    15. Blood supply to heart • Blood supplied thru the right & left coronary arteries • Coronary arteries are first branches off aorta • After blood has passed thru capillary beds, enters cardiac veins then thru common channel, coronary sinus, then into rt atrium

    16. Conduction system of heart • Sinoatrial node (pacemaker): in rt atrium near opening of superior vena cava • Atrioventricular node: in rt atrium along lower part of interatrial septum • Atrioventricular bundle: originate in AV node & extend by 2 branches thru the 2 sides of the interventricular septum • Purkinje fibers: extension of AV bundle out to the lateral walls of the ventricles & papillary muscles

    17. Conduction System

    18. Blood vessels • Arteries: carry blood away from heart • Arterioles: small arteries • Veins: Carry blood toward heart • Venules: small veins • Capillaries: microscopic blood vessels that carry blood from arterioles to venules

    19. 3 layers of blood vessels • Tunica adventitia: outer layer, fibrous connective tissue • Tunica media: layer of smooth muscle & elastic connective tissue • Tunica intima: made of smooth endothelium

    20. Blood Vessel Structure

    21. Functions of capillaries • Transport materials to and from cells • Capillaries so numerous & so small that blood flows at its slowest rate in capillaries

    22. Functions of arteries • Function as “distributors” • Arterioles also function as resistance vessels • Smooth muscle cells on arterioles act as precapillary sphincters where a capillary originates

    23. Functions of veins • Return blood to heart • Act as reservoir vessels • Ability to stretch by veins called capacitance thus veins are capacitance vessels

    24. Circulatory routes • Systemic circulation: blood flow from heart to all parts of body (except lungs) • Pulmonary circulation: blood flow from heart to lungs

    25. Arteries • End-arteries: most of the arteries, they diverge into capillaries • A few arteries open into branches of other arteries; this communication is an arterial anastomosis • Incidence of arterial anastomosis increases as distance from the heart increases

    26. Aorta • Major artery that serves as trunk of the entire systemic arterial system • First few cm conducts blood up away from lt ventricle-ascending aorta • Then turns 180 degrees-aortic arch • Then downward from arch-descending aorta

    27. Veins • Large veins that return blood to heart in systemic circulation are superior & inferior vena cava