CHAPTER 25 QUIT The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 Chapter Overview Time Line The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 SECTION Patterns of Change: Industrialization 2 SECTION MAP Industrialization Spreads 3 SECTION An Age of Reforms 4 SECTION GRAPH Visual Summary
CHAPTER 25 Chapter Overview HOME The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 During the 1800s, Britain, the United States, and some European countries undergo a rapid process of industrialization. The Industrial Revolution creates great wealth but also great social and economic inequality, prompting a backlash of reform.
CHAPTER 25 1900 1700 HOME The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 Time Line 1701Jethro Tull invents seed drill. 1793Eli Whitney invents cotton gin. 1825First railroad line built in England. 1875British unions win right to strike. 1765James Watt builds steam engine. 1807Robert Fulton launches first steamboat. 1848Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto.
1 HOME The Beginnings of Industrialization Key Idea In Britain, changes in agriculture lay the foundations for the Industrial Revolution. Other factors—including ample resources, an expanding economy, and political stability—provide the conditions for the rapid growth of industry. Overview Assessment
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Beginnings of Industrialization Overview •Industrial Revolution •enclosure •crop rotation •industrialization •factors of production •factory •entrepreneur WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread elsewhere. The changes that began in Britain paved the way for modern industrial societies. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment Natural Resource Use 1. Coal 2. 3. 4. HOME The Beginnings of Industrialization 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four natural resources needed for industrialization and how each resource is used. Fuel new machines Construct new machines, tools, buildings Iron ore Rivers Inland transportation Docking stations for merchant ships Good harbors continued . . .
1 HOME The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 Section Assessment 2. What effect did entrepreneurs have upon the Industrial Revolution? THINK ABOUT •new technological developments •business opportunities •increase in prosperity ANSWER Entrepreneurs helped to promote the Industrial Revolution, because they were willing to risk their capital by investing it in new inventions and enterprises. Possible Response: End of Section 1
2 PATTERNS OF CHANGE HOME Industrialization CASE STUDY: Manchester MAP Key Idea Industrialization transforms British society: cities grow, work patterns change, and a middle class emerges. The city of Manchester becomes a notable example of the benefits and drawbacks of the new industrial age. Overview Assessment
PATTERNS OF CHANGE TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Industrialization 2 CASE STUDY: Manchester MAP Overview •urbanization •middle class WHY IT MATTERS NOW The factory system changed the way people lived and worked, introducing a variety of problems. The difficult process of industrialization is being repeated in many less-developed countries today. Assessment
2 PATTERNS OF CHANGE 1. Upper Class 2. Upper Middle Class 3. Lower Middle Class 4. Working Class HOME Industrialization CASE STUDY: Manchester MAP 2 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the social classes in industrial England, and list the types of laborers and professionals included in each group. Landowners, aristocrats Factory owners, merchants, government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers Factory overseers, skilled workers Workers in factories, mines continued . . .
2 PATTERNS OF CHANGE HOME Industrialization CASE STUDY: Manchester MAP 2 Section Assessment 2. How did industrialization contribute to city growth? THINK ABOUT •growth of industry •creation of jobs •the economic advantages of centralization ANSWER Industrialization promoted the growth of cities because the factory system led to manufacturing goods in a central location, and this, in turn, created jobs and economic opportunity. Possible Response: continued . . .
2 PATTERNS OF CHANGE HOME Industrialization CASE STUDY: Manchester MAP 2 Section Assessment 3. How might a factory owner have justified the harsh conditions in his factory?THINK ABOUT •class distinctions •the spread of factories •financial gains ANSWER The factory owner might have believed that without jobs many of his workers would starve; that hard work is better than no work; all factories had the same conditions, so his were no worse; that if he were making money, that was all that mattered. Possible Responses: End of Section 2
3 HOME Industrialization Spreads Key Idea Industrial technologies travel from Britain to America, causing an industrial boom in the United States. Industrialization also spreads to continental Europe and contributes to the rise of imperialism. Overview Assessment
3 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Industrialization Spreads Overview •corporation WHY IT MATTERS NOW The industrialization that began in Great Britain spread to other parts of the world. The Industrial Revolution set the stage for the growth of modern cities. Assessment
3 Worldwide Effects HOME Industrialization Spreads 3 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Give three examples of the effects of industrialization on the world. Widened gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries Strengthened economic ties between countries Promoted colonization continued . . .
3 HOME Industrialization Spreads 3 Section Assessment 2. Reread the quote by Lucy Larcom. Do you think her feelings about working in the mill are typical? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT •her experiences in a mill •her possible bias ANSWER • Yes: She seems to be speaking as a young woman from New England who chose to work in the mill and was pleased with the experience. • No: Since she recorded her thoughts and experiences in a memoir or journal, she may have been more independent than most young women. Possible Responses: End of Section 3
4 HOME An Age of Reforms GRAPH Key Idea Industrialization provokes positive and negative reactions in society. Some philosophers extol the virtues of free market capitalism, while others promote socialism, unionization, and a variety of reform movements designed to blunt the harsh effects of industrialism. Overview Assessment
4 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME An Age of Reforms GRAPH Overview •laissez faire •Adam Smith •capitalism •utilitarianism •socialism •Karl Marx •communism • union •collective bargaining •strike WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Industrial Revolution led to economic, social, and political reforms. Many modern social welfare programs developed during this period. Assessment
4 Capitalism Only Marxism Only HOME An Age of Reforms GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast capitalism and Marxism. Both Supported individual freedom; opposed government intervention; guided by profit motive; individual ownership of private property Economic arrangements central to society Factors of production owned by people; governmental control of factories, mines; predicted proletariat revolution continued . . .
4 HOME An Age of Reforms GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 2. What were the main problems faced by the unions during the 1800s? How did the unions overcome these problems?THINK ABOUT •government restrictions •labor reforms •skilled workers vs. unskilled workers ANSWER • Workers were denied the right to form unions; unions and strikes outlawed; unskilled workers did not have much bargaining power. • Unions fought back by getting their members to refuse to work; unions got Parliament to repeal the Combination Acts. Possible Responses: continued . . .
4 HOME An Age of Reforms GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 3. According to Marx and Engels, economic forces alone dominate society. How important do you think such forces are? THINK ABOUT •other forces, like ethnic loyalties, desire for democracy •causes of the Industrial Revolution •the class structure ANSWER • Economic forces dominate all areas of society. • Certain events are better explained by idealism and desire for freedom. Possible Responses: End of Section 4