order and purpose of the speeches n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
WELCOME TO DEBATE! PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
WELCOME TO DEBATE!

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

WELCOME TO DEBATE! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on

ORDER AND PURPOSE OF THE SPEECHES. WELCOME TO DEBATE!. Remember… The job of the affirmative is to prove that their proposal (which must fit under the resolution) is a good idea.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'WELCOME TO DEBATE!' - maeve


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
affirmative vs negative

Remember…

The job of the affirmative is to prove that their proposal (which must fit under the resolution) is a good idea.

The job of the negative is to prove that the affirmative proposal is either a bad idea or does not fit under the resolution.

The judge votes for whichever team does a better job of proving their point.

Affirmative vs negative
affirmative vs negative1

Each team gets a set amount of time to prove their point (they must also speak in a set order).

This will be a little confusing at first but will go smoothly after your first tournament. For the first one, you should print off this power point to keep with you.

Also, keep in mind that the novice packet provides an excellent initial limit on the number of arguments a team can make. Learn the packet well enough and not much will surprise you at the first tournament.

Affirmative vs negative
1a 1n 2a 2n

There are four participants in the debate. Each person gives one constructive speech, one rebuttal speech, asks questions once and answers questions once.

Each person has a role in the debate. They can be the 1A, 2A, 1N, or 2N. (First affirmative speaker, Second affirmative speaker, First negative speaker, Second negative speaker).

1A, 1N, 2A, 2N
map of the round

1AC (first affirmative constructive)—8 min

    • 1A stays standing, CX by 2N—3 min
  • 1NC (first negative constructive)—8 min
    • 1N stays standing, CX by 1A—3 min
  • 2AC (second affirmative constructive)—8 min
    • 2A stays standing, CX by 1N—3 min
  • 2NC (second negative constructive)—8 min
    • 2N stays standing, CX by 2A—3 min
  • 1NR (first negative rebuttal)—5 min
  • 1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)—5 min
  • 2NR (second negative rebuttal)—5 min
  • 2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)—5 min
Map of the Round
constructives rebuttals

A constructive is one of the first four speeches. In these speeches, debaters initiate the key arguments that they plan to make.

There is a big difference between the first two and last two constructives. The first two speeches (1AC, 1NC) mostly consist of reading pre-written material and the last two constructives (2AC, 2NC) are written on the spot to counter arguments made by your opponent.

A rebuttal is one of the last four speeches. In these speeches, debaters refute points made by the other side and use logic and evidence comparisons to prove that their core arguments are correct.

Constructives & rebuttals
map of the round color coded by person

1AC (first affirmative constructive)—8 min

    • 1A stays standing, CX by 2N—3 min
  • 1NC (first negative constructive)—8 min
    • 1N stays standing, CX by 1A—3 min
  • 2AC (second affirmative constructive)—8 min
    • 2A stays standing, CX by 1N—3 min
  • 2NC (second negative constructive)—8 min
    • 2N stays standing, CX by 2A—3 min
  • 1NR (first negative rebuttal)—5 min
  • 1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)—5 min
  • 2NR (second negative rebuttal)—5 min
  • 2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)—5 min
Map of the Round (color coded by person)
activity

Activity… I give the four participants name tags that say 1A, 1N, 2A, 2N and have them go through the process of just standing up and announcing what speech they are giving. I have the partners sit together. F

  • or this first time, I do not have them actually say anything besides the aff“I support the resolution and my plan is a great idea” and the neg “I think that the resolution is a bad idea and the plan stinks!” I would skip CX for now.
aCTIVITY
when do you write speeches

Each team is given prep time to use how they like. Most judges give each side 8 or 10 minutes. Share the time well with your partner and try to leave more for rebuttals.

  • How can 8 or 10 minutes be enough? Quite a bit of debate work is done ahead of time. During the round, you will need to think of logical points on the spot and put your arguments in order but all of that is facilitated by work done before the tournament.
    • Research is done before tournaments.
    • The 1AC and major components of the 1NC are pre-written.
    • You can write out anything that you like. If you hear an new argument, write answers to it so that you do not need prep next time!
    • Careful filing means that you can find what you need quickly.
When do you write speeches?
when do you write speeches1

Most importantly, all debaters take extensive notes during speeches. This is called flowing. Taking careful notes is absolutely essential to be able to respond to arguments made by the other side (and to remember what you said earlier in the debate).

Learning how to structure these notes will give you an automatic way to organize your speeches.

We will talk more about that later.

When do you write speeches?
1ac first affirmative constructive

First speech of the debate

  • The affirmative team lays out their proposal and why they think that their proposal would have advantages over the current system. Here is the usual order of their presentation:
    • Inherency (factual description of the current situation—points to laws responsible for current problems)
    • Harms (outlines problems with the current situation)
    • Plan (short statement of what the affirmative team plans to do about the problems they outlined)
    • Solvency (reasons why the affirmative plan will solve the problems they outlined)
1AC (first affirmative constructive)
1nc first negative constructive

The negative responds to the 1AC. After you graduate from novice, there will be a large number of arguments that you can use on the negative. For now, you need to pick out arguments from the packet.

Your basic strategy is to demonstrate that the problems caused by the affirmative plan (disadvantages) are more substantial than the benefits of the plan (advantages).

To do this, you need to both respond to the affirmative case and demonstrate that it would cause substantial problems.

To respond to the case you make “on case” arguments. New reasons why the affirmative plan would cause problems are “off case arguments.”

1NC (first negative constructive)
2ac second affirmative constructive

The main goal of the 2AC is to respond to all of the arguments made in the 1NC. The 2AC needs to go point by point and respond to each of the case arguments. The 2AC also needs to go to each off case argument, group the position, and respond to the argument.

Most of the 2AC is original but you can write out arguments that you would like to use ahead of time. Look at each DA in the packet and pick out arguments that you would like to make in response.

Remember that you made arguments in the 1AC that will be applicable. Extend any 1AC arguments that will help you beat negative positions—there is no sense reading cards that repeat earlier ones.

2AC (Second affirmative constructive)
2nc second negative constructive 1nr first negative rebuttal

These two speeches are the only ones given by the same side back-to-back. It is nicknamed the “negative block.”

  • Your job is to respond to each argument made by the 2AC on the positions that you plan to extend.
  • Your goal is to continue to defend a winning package (such as a DA and case defense, so that you can argue that the DA outweighs the case in the 2NR).
2nc (second negative constructive) & 1NR (first negative Rebuttal)
2nc second negative constructive 1nr first negative rebuttal1

The 2NC and 1NR should divide up flows and decide what each person will extend. How do you make the decision?

    • After the 2AC but before CX (so that the 2N uses CX as productive prep time), the negative team should take a moment of prep to discuss who will extend which argument.
    • Keep in mind that the 1NR has less time to speak but more time to prepare—it is often wise to give them the argument that will be the most prep intensive.
2nc (second negative constructive) & 1NR (first negative Rebuttal)
1ar first affirmative rebuttal

The 1AR builds on 2AC arguments + can make new answers to anything new brought up in the negative block.

The 1AR does not have to extend every 2AC argument--there simply will not be time! Instead, focus on arguments that you are both ahead on and that will win you the debate. For instance, winning that the affirmative does not link (will not cause) the disadvantage is much more important than winning a nit-picky point.

1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)
2nr second negative rebuttal

The goal of the 2NR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff plan is, on balance, a bad idea, then the judge will vote negative.

You should begin with an overview that explains why the impact of the DA outweighs the case.

Refute every 1AR argument made on the DA and case arguments that you wish to extend.

2NR (second negative rebuttal)
2ar second affirmative rebuttal

The goal of the 2AR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff plan is, on balance, a good idea, then the judge will vote negative.

You should begin with an overview that explains why the impact of the case outweighs the DA.

Build on previously made affirmative arguments. You do not need to win every point but you do need to a) win arguments that defeat the DA, and b) prove that your case is a good idea.

2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)
activity1

In the mean time, can we have four more volunteers to give each speech?

    • 1AC: Make a statement about why the federal government should provide health care to persons living in poverty.
    • 1NC: Refute the point made by the 1AC and make an additional point about why the plan is too expensive.
    • 2AC: Defend the point made in the 1AC and answer the expense argument made by the 1NC.
    • 2NC: Continue the attack on the 1AC.
    • 1NR: Continue supporting your additional point about why the plan is too expensive.
    • 1AR: Respond to the previous two negative speeches.
    • 2NR: State why your arguments are more correct than theirs and why the judge should vote for you (and avoid spending too much money).
    • 2AR: State why your arguments are more correct than theirs and why the judge should vote for you (and help the poor even if it is expensive).
aCTIVITY
what about cross examination

For your first tournament, preparing for cross-examination is your lowest priority. Debates are won or lost during the speeches. Cross-examination is important and we will work on it later, but for now, just think about your speeches.

Make up cross-examination questions on the spot. If you get totally stuck, you can always ask the other side to clarify their arguments. It might not be an exciting exchange but it will fill the 3 minutes while your partner is preparing to give a speech.

What about cross-examination?
information overload

Imagine having someone describe a basketball game to you if you had never seen a ball or the court, let alone an actual game. That is a little what it is like to have a debate described to you.

The best way to learn is by actually doing it. Attend as many tournaments as possible, as soon an possible. Novices learn a TON from participating.

Information overload?