ORDER AND PURPOSE OF THE SPEECHES. WELCOME TO DEBATE!. Remember… The job of the affirmative is to prove that their proposal (which must fit under the resolution) is a good idea.
The job of the affirmative is to prove that their proposal (which must fit under the resolution) is a good idea.
The job of the negative is to prove that the affirmative proposal is either a bad idea or does not fit under the resolution.
The judge votes for whichever team does a better job of proving their point.Affirmative vs negative
Each team gets a set amount of time to prove their point (they must also speak in a set order).
This will be a little confusing at first but will go smoothly after your first tournament. For the first one, you should print off this power point to keep with you.
Also, keep in mind that the novice packet provides an excellent initial limit on the number of arguments a team can make. Learn the packet well enough and not much will surprise you at the first tournament.Affirmative vs negative
There are four participants in the debate. Each person gives one constructive speech, one rebuttal speech, asks questions once and answers questions once.
Each person has a role in the debate. They can be the 1A, 2A, 1N, or 2N. (First affirmative speaker, Second affirmative speaker, First negative speaker, Second negative speaker).1A, 1N, 2A, 2N
A constructive is one of the first four speeches. In these speeches, debaters initiate the key arguments that they plan to make.
There is a big difference between the first two and last two constructives. The first two speeches (1AC, 1NC) mostly consist of reading pre-written material and the last two constructives (2AC, 2NC) are written on the spot to counter arguments made by your opponent.
A rebuttal is one of the last four speeches. In these speeches, debaters refute points made by the other side and use logic and evidence comparisons to prove that their core arguments are correct.Constructives & rebuttals
Activity… I give the four participants name tags that say 1A, 1N, 2A, 2N and have them go through the process of just standing up and announcing what speech they are giving. I have the partners sit together. F
Each team is given prep time to use how they like. Most judges give each side 8 or 10 minutes. Share the time well with your partner and try to leave more for rebuttals.
Most importantly, all debaters take extensive notes during speeches. This is called flowing. Taking careful notes is absolutely essential to be able to respond to arguments made by the other side (and to remember what you said earlier in the debate).
Learning how to structure these notes will give you an automatic way to organize your speeches.
We will talk more about that later.When do you write speeches?
The negative responds to the 1AC. After you graduate from novice, there will be a large number of arguments that you can use on the negative. For now, you need to pick out arguments from the packet.
Your basic strategy is to demonstrate that the problems caused by the affirmative plan (disadvantages) are more substantial than the benefits of the plan (advantages).
To do this, you need to both respond to the affirmative case and demonstrate that it would cause substantial problems.
To respond to the case you make “on case” arguments. New reasons why the affirmative plan would cause problems are “off case arguments.”1NC (first negative constructive)
The main goal of the 2AC is to respond to all of the arguments made in the 1NC. The 2AC needs to go point by point and respond to each of the case arguments. The 2AC also needs to go to each off case argument, group the position, and respond to the argument.
Most of the 2AC is original but you can write out arguments that you would like to use ahead of time. Look at each DA in the packet and pick out arguments that you would like to make in response.
Remember that you made arguments in the 1AC that will be applicable. Extend any 1AC arguments that will help you beat negative positions—there is no sense reading cards that repeat earlier ones.2AC (Second affirmative constructive)
These two speeches are the only ones given by the same side back-to-back. It is nicknamed the “negative block.”
The 2NC and 1NR should divide up flows and decide what each person will extend. How do you make the decision?
The 1AR builds on 2AC arguments + can make new answers to anything new brought up in the negative block.
The 1AR does not have to extend every 2AC argument--there simply will not be time! Instead, focus on arguments that you are both ahead on and that will win you the debate. For instance, winning that the affirmative does not link (will not cause) the disadvantage is much more important than winning a nit-picky point.1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)
The goal of the 2NR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff plan is, on balance, a bad idea, then the judge will vote negative.
You should begin with an overview that explains why the impact of the DA outweighs the case.
Refute every 1AR argument made on the DA and case arguments that you wish to extend.2NR (second negative rebuttal)
The goal of the 2AR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff plan is, on balance, a good idea, then the judge will vote negative.
You should begin with an overview that explains why the impact of the case outweighs the DA.
Build on previously made affirmative arguments. You do not need to win every point but you do need to a) win arguments that defeat the DA, and b) prove that your case is a good idea.2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)
For your first tournament, preparing for cross-examination is your lowest priority. Debates are won or lost during the speeches. Cross-examination is important and we will work on it later, but for now, just think about your speeches.
Make up cross-examination questions on the spot. If you get totally stuck, you can always ask the other side to clarify their arguments. It might not be an exciting exchange but it will fill the 3 minutes while your partner is preparing to give a speech.What about cross-examination?
Imagine having someone describe a basketball game to you if you had never seen a ball or the court, let alone an actual game. That is a little what it is like to have a debate described to you.
The best way to learn is by actually doing it. Attend as many tournaments as possible, as soon an possible. Novices learn a TON from participating.Information overload?