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  1. Intro. To Literature Drama

  2. Intro. To Literature Drama In general sense: Any performance having story on the stage Ex. Pantomime, Opera, Play (Theater) etc.

  3. Intro. To Literature Drama • In Specific: A work of literature consisting of entirely dialogue, intended for actors to speak with accompanying gestures before the audience

  4. Intro. To Literature Drama • In this sense Drama could be said as Play So the difference between Drama in general and Play: Drama belongs to any performance having story Play is drama that have dialogue as a mean to deliver the story

  5. Intro. To Literature Drama • Next time in this class whenever we talk about drama we refer to Play “Play is Drama but not all drama are play”

  6. Intro. To Literature Drama • Drama vs. Fiction In drama the story is delivered entirely by dialogue. In some parts, fiction has also dialogue, but it has narrative and description as well. In Drama, neither the audience nor the reader is conscious of the author’s existing. In Fiction, the narrative and description can give the author an opportunity to speak in his own person.

  7. Drama Maisrul 081266401251 08127552934 maisrul@yahoo.com www.roelsite.yolasite.com English Department FKIP-UNRI & UIR

  8. History of Drama The first form of drama was originally from ancient Greek. Dran ‘to perform’ The performance was initially intended to honor the Gods and the God that used to be associated to this performance was Dionysus, God of wine and crops. Theycelebrated the harvest by imitating the human’s daily activity or even the animal in the form of dancing and singing. That performance later on became drama or play.

  9. History of Drama • Some factors of the appearance of drama at that time. • Believe in Gods • A Fear of Starvation (hunger) • The mimitic faculty • The sympathyof magic • Why these factors become the factors of the appearance of Drama?

  10. History of Drama sssssssssssss • The development of the play in Greece then • became formal performance on the stage for • the sake of arts as well as bussiness. • The famous Greek playwright were Sophocles • (Tragedy) and Euripides (Comedy). • The theaters were build on the hill side. The • audiences heard the dialogue through the echo • of the sound on the hill.

  11. Spectators Orchestra & Dancer Stage Sophocles’theater

  12. Sophocles’ theater Spectators Stage Orchestra & Dancer

  13. History of Drama • The development of the drama was continued as the emerging of Roman Empire. • The playright from Roman that much influenced European drama, especially English Drama, was Seneca. Seneca was considered as one of thethe playrights that inspired shakespeare’s works. • So why the English playwrights were much influenced by the Roman than the Greek?

  14. History of Drama • Most of the Greek plays were talking about the human that suffered by the Gods. In other word, the human struggles were much influenced by the involvement of the Gods power. • On the contrary, the story of Roman drama that described the human self power or attemp was much more influenced by the success of the their struggles and not only depend on the Gods power. • The culture and belieft of the Roman drama were suitable withEuropean, or it sounds reasonable to accept the story of the Drama.

  15. ROMAN THEATER

  16. ROMAN THEATER

  17. ROMAN THEATER

  18. History of English Drama • Maisrul • 08127552934 • maisrul@yahoo.com • English Department FKIP-UNRI & UIR

  19. Intro to Literature • Assignment for Drama session • Find out one act play (3 - 5 pages) • Analyze the play • Do the assignment in group of not more than 5 members • The assignment is also as to substitute class (equal to one meeting) • Submit the task when the semester test is administered

  20. History of English Drama • The first form of English drama was called • Sacret. Sacret means holy or spiritual • Sacret was a sort of mini drama that was • performed in the Church to celebrate religion festival. The story was based on the holybook. • Sacret then developed into Morality. This Drama was performed in the yard and not in the church anymore. The story was not only from the bibel but also from the author but it still contained a moral lesson as Sacret did.

  21. History of English Drama • Morality was enjoyed by common people because it was performed in the open space in every city or town in England at that time. • The upper class of society or the noble and royal family then developed the performance as what they called as Interlude. • Interlude, like Morality, was also a drama that contained a moral lesson but it only perforemed in the middle of a party or festival of the noblemen and the upperclass.

  22. History of English Drama • Sacret, Morality, and interlude were the three forms of early drama in England. • The development of English Drama reached its golden age in Elizabethan period or during Queen Elizabeth reign between the middle of 16thand early 17thCentury. • At that time the most famoust English playwright William Shakespeare lived.

  23. Shakespeares’ theater Spectators Spectators The Stage Actors /Actres

  24. Shakespeares’ theater Spectators Spectators The Stage Actors /Actres

  25. Restoration Period • Civil war (the war of roses) between Royal (Round head) Vs Parliament (the cavalier). Parliament defeated the royal and ruled the country, the leader was Oliver Cromwell. • This period was known as Puritan period. Puritan was a group of religion society that wanted to purify their religion thought. One of their roles was no one allowed to show their enjoyment or happiness in front of publict.

  26. Restoration Period • The impact was all theater that have developed during Elizabethan (Shakespeare time) were banned. • Charles II (from the exile in France) came to England and struggled for the crown. After long war, he succeeded to overtake the kingdom and ruled the country. • This time was known as restoration period for the changed in many aspects of life he made, including literature like Drama.

  27. Restoration Period • The new features of New Drama • The theater was shallower or smaller than • theater in Shakespeare time, the stage was • moved behind. • The language was much less poetic • The women were introduced as the actress on • the stage

  28. Tragedy and Comedy • Maisrul • 08127552934 • maisrul@yahoo.com • English Department FKIP-UNRI & UIR

  29. Tragedy and Comedy • Tragedy was born in Greece in the fifth century B.C, Aristotle (Poetics) define it as an imitation of an action that is serious, complete in itself, and of a certain magnitude (scale/size) … accomplish through incidents that arouse pity and fear… • The word tragedy derives from Tragos (= goat). It maybe taken from the festival to honor the God of Dionysus.

  30. Tragedy and Comedy • In many cases, it is the nature of tragedy that the protagonist or the hero (chief character) must fall from power and from happiness. • In more modern tragedy (on stage or movie), it does not appear in the original one but it’s • combined with comedy. • The combination of Tragedy and comedy then it’s called Tragicomedy.

  31. Tragedy and Comedy • Comedy, from the Greek komos/komoidia • (=village festival or party), originated to celebrate spring and to praise the God Dionysus, God of fertility and wine. • Two Kinds of Comedy • Based on the people/character described by the story. • Based on the way to interpret

  32. Tragedy and Comedy • A. Based on the people/character described by the • story. • Satiric comedy: Shows a world with less attractive people (ordinary) in which human weakness or folly is ridiculed. • Romantic Comedy is comedy which presents an ideal world, golden world, or a world more delightful than the fact. It portrays people with indulgence/wealthy in everyday world or in some never-never land.

  33. Tragedy and Comedy • B. Based on the way to interpret • Comedy High and Low • Comedy High focus on verbal or dialogue as the trigger to make funny. • Ex. Comedy of manner • ‘The Importance of being Earnest’ • Comedy low focus on the physically action as the source of the funny. • Ex. Slapstick comedy, Farce, etc

  34. CHARACTERS • The way to interpret the characterization in a play can be based on: • 1. The name and physical appearance • 2. The individual’s patterns of action over the course of the play • 3. The way a character speaks (dialect, word choice, background of intelligence) • 4. The way a character responds • 5. What others say about the character

  35. Action • Although the action of a play is suggested in the script, it is often considered as the product of the performance • The implementation of action from the script or its realization is depend on the actor/actress on the stage or from the director.