Words to Know • Communist Party of China (CPC) • People’s Republic of China (PRC) • Republic of China (ROC) • Import • Export • Tiananmen Square
The People‘s Republic of China is one of the largest countries. With a population of over 1.3 billion, roughly one-fifth of the world's total population. • The Communist Party of China (CPC) has led the PRC under a single-party system since the state's establishment in 1949. The PRC is involved in a long-running dispute over the political status of Taiwan. The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), retreated to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its civil war defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC). The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the areas under PRC rule, but sometimes excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.
After its victory in the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong, gained control of most of the Mainland China. On October 1, 1949, they established the People's Republic of China (PRC). • The main focus in ROC (Taiwan) politics is the issue of eventual unification with China vs. formal independence. • If the ROC declared formal independence from the PRC, guess what the response would be from the PRC?
Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, large research and development investments, China is often considered as an emerging superpower.It has the world's fourth largest economy. China is also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Since 1978, China's market-based economic reforms have helped lift over 400 million Chinese out of poverty, bringing down the poverty rate from 53% of population in 1981 to 8% by 2001. However, China is now faced with a number of other economic problems, including an aging population, an increasing rural-urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation. • China plays a major role in international trade. The country is the world's largest consumer of steel and concrete. It is also the world's second largest importer of petroleum.
Interactive Notebook Question(Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share • What island group is China fighting for control from their former enemies?
Graphic Organizer PRC ROC VS Communist Democratic Command Economy Market Economy
After the Chinese Civil War, mainland China underwent a series of disruptive socioeconomic movements starting in the late 1950s with the Great Leap Forward and continued in the 1960s with the Cultural Revolution that left much of its education system and economy in shambles. • Reforms on the mainland have led to some relaxation of control over many areas of society. However, the PRC government still has almost absolute control over politics, and it continually seeks to eradicate threats to the social, political and economic stability of the country. Examples include the fight against terrorism, jailing of political opponents and journalists, custody regulation of the press, regulation of religion, and suppression of independence/secessionist movements.
Student Demonstrations in Tiananmen SquareJune 3-4, 1989 • Tiananmen Square is a large public square in Beijing, China, on the southern edge of the Inner or Tatar City. The square, named for its Gate of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen), contains the monument of the heroes of the revolution, the Great Hall of the People, the museum of history and revolution, and the Mao Zedong Memorial Hall. • A massive demonstration for democratic reform, begun in Tiananmen Square by Chinese students in April, 1989. It was brutally repressed on June 3 and 4, 1989. • The demonstrators were joined by workers, intellectuals, and civil servants, until over a million people filled the square. • Martial law was declared on May 20. The protesters demanded the government resign, but the government answered on the nights of June 3 and 4 with troops and tanks, killing thousands to quell a "counter-revolutionary rebellion.“
Interactive Notebook Question(Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share • Why did the students at Tiananmen Square upset the Communist Government?
Graphic Organizer China
Economic Statistics • Statistics • Exports: $1216 billion (2007) • Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys,, plastics, iron and steel • Exports - partners: US 21.0%, EU 18.1%, Japan 12.4%, • Imports: $953.9 billion (2007) • Imports – commodities: oil, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals. • Imports - partners: Japan 16.8%, EU 12.4%, US 7.9%,
Economy ofthe People's Republic of China • Currency yuan (CNY) • Exchange rate (2007) • CNY :$ USD = 7.61 CNY :¥ JPY100 = 6.47 CNY :€ EUR = 10.55 CNY :£ GBP = 15.23 • GDP per capita $2,034 • Agriculture (11.7%), industry (48.9%), services (39.3%)
In 1978, Deng Xiaoping initiated China's market-oriented reforms. Economy • Beginning in late 1978, the Chinese leadership began reforming the economy from a Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economy that is still within a rigid political framework under Party control (Mixed Economy). The reforms allowed a wide variety of small-scale enterprises to flourish, and promoted foreign investment. These changes resulted in mainland China's shift from a planned economy to a mixed economy.
The government now emphasizes personal income and consumption and focuses on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth, which led to 5 Special Economic Zones (SEZ: Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen, Hainan) so as to attract foreign capital. Since the 1990s, SEZs and similar concepts have been expanded to major Chinese cities, including Shanghai and Beijing. The result has been a 6-fold increase of GDP since 1978. Chinese economic development is among the fastest in the world.
Interactive Notebook Question (Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share • By moving their economy away from a Command Economy to a Mixed Economy; what do the leaders of China hope to accomplish?
Mainland China has a reputation as being a low-cost manufacturer, which caused notable disputes in global markets. This is largely because Chinese corporations can produce many products far more cheaply than other parts of Asia or Latin America. There has been a significant rise in the Chinese standard of living in recent years. Today, 10 percent of the Chinese population is below the poverty line. • International trade makes up a sizeable portion of China's overall economy.
An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company, enterprise, or venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome. • What do you think is the level of Entrepreneurship in China?
China's global trade exceeded $758 trillion at the end of 2006.The vast majority of China's imports consists of industrial supplies and capital goods, notably machinery and high-technology equipment, the majority of which comes from the developed countries, primarily Japan and the United States. About 80 percent of China's exports consist of manufactured goods, most of which are textiles and electronic equipment, with agricultural products and chemicals constituting the remainder. Out of the five busiest ports in the world, three are in China.
Interactive Notebook Question(Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share • Why do companies chose to do business in China?
By the 1990s and 2000s, agriculture remained the largest employer in China, though its proportion of the workforce steadily declined. Women have been a major labor presence in China since the People's Republic was established. Some 40-45 percent of all women over age 15 are employed.
Government • While the PRC is regarded as a Communist state by many political scientists, simple characterizations of China's political structure since the 1980s are no longer possible. The PRC government has been described as authoritarian, communist, and socialist, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably in the Internet and in the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of reproductive rights, and freedom of religion. • The country is ruled under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. Its President is Xi Jinping and its premier is Li Keqiang.
The country is run by the Communist Party of China (CPC), which is guaranteed power by the Constitution.There are other political parties in the PRC, referred to in China as "democratic parties", which participate in the People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress. There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels. However, the Party retains effective control over government, the CPC wins by default most of the time.
Graphic Organizer Low Cost Manufacturing China Moving from command to Mixed Economy Economics
Describe the ways governments distribute power (Left Side) • Unitary- a form of government in which power is held by one central authority. • Confederation-voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation. • Federal-a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. • Which one is China today????
Citizen participation in government (Left Side) • Autocratic-government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government. • Oligarchic-Government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has very limited role. • Democratic-Government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly. • Which one is China today????
Graphic Organizer Low Cost Manufacturing China Moving from command to Mixed Economy Economics Communist Government Unitary Oligarchic
Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments (Left Side) • Parliamentary-system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. • Presidential-a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature. • Which one does China have today????
Population Growth • With a population of over 1.3 billion, the PRC is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted to implement a strict family planning policy. The government's goal is one child per family, with exceptions for ethnic minorities and flexibility in rural areas, where a family can have a second child if the first is a girl or physically disabled. The government's goal is to stabilize population growth early in the twenty-first century, though some projections estimate a population of anywhere ranging from 1.4 billion to 1.6 billion by 2025. • The policy is resisted, particularly in rural areas, because of the need for agricultural labor and a traditional preference for boys.
Graphic Organizer Low Cost Manufacturing China Moving from command to Mixed Economy Economics Communist Government Current Issues Unitary Oligarchic Population
Education • In 1986, China set the long-term goal of providing compulsory nine-year basic education to every child. As of 1997, there were 628,840 primary schools, 78,642 secondary schools and 1,020 higher education institutions in the PRC. China's youth (age 15 to 24) literacy rate is 98.9% (99.2% for males and 98.5% for females) in 2000. • Many parents often invest large portions of the family's income on education. Private lessons and recreational activities are popular among the middle-class families who can afford them.
Graphic Organizer Low Cost Manufacturing China Moving from command to Mixed Economy Economics Communist Government Current Issues Education Unitary Oligarchic Population
Public Health • The Ministry of Health oversees the health needs of the Chinese population. An emphasis on public health and preventative treatment characterized health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as attacking several diseases. • With economic reform after 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition. Health care in China is largely private fee-for-service.
Graphic Organizer Low Cost Manufacturing China Moving from command to Mixed Economy Economics Communist Government Current Issues Education Unitary Oligarchic Population Public Health
Despite significant improvements in health and the introduction of western style medical facilities, the PRC has several emerging public health problems, which include respiratory problems as a result of widespread air pollution, and millions of cigarette smokers, a possible future HIV/AIDS epidemic, and an increase in obesity among urban youths. Estimates of deaths in China from environmental pollution are 760,000 people yearly from air and water pollution. China's large population and close living quarters has led to some serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS (a pneumonia-like disease) which has since been largely contained.
Interactive Notebook Question(Left Side) • 3-2-1 • Name three problems facing China today. • Name two types of industries in China today. • Name the type of economy in certain port cities in China today.
Chinese Military Statistics • Air Force (470,000 airmen; 2,556 jet fighters; 400 ground attack jets.) • Ground Force (Army) (1.9 million men; 14,000 tanks; 14,500 artillery pieces & 453 helicopters) • Navy (250,000 sailors; 63 submarines; 18 destroyers; 35 frigates)
Nuclear Weapons Worldwide ***Estimates • Country Suspected Weapons Suspected Total Weapons • China 250 400 • France 350 350 • India 60 60+? • Israel 100-200 200+? • Pakistan 24-48 24-48 • Russia 6,000 10,000 • United Kingdom 180 85 • United States 8,646 10,656
Name the Type of Economy • Draw an Economic Continuum line on the Left Side of your Notebook with Market on one side and Command on the other: • Market Command • Where on the above Economic Continuum would China be today?