Brain Teaser I cdnuoltblveiiee that I cluodaulacltyuesdnatnrd what I was rdanieg. The phaonmnealpweor of the human mnid. Aoccdrnig to rscheerch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it doesn’t mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a word are, the olnyiprmoatnttihng is that the frist and lsatltteer be in the rghitpclae. The rset can be a taotlmses and you can still raed it wouthit a porbelm. This is bcuseae the huamnmniddeos not raederveylteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh and I awlyas thought slpeling was ipmorantt.
The Cognitive Process Is employed for all decisions people make Step-by-step process where you break down the steps as though you are creating your own adventure story As we speak – we conduct a search through our brain to use the right words We map things out and respond in what may seem like a natural way Our brains process information so fast, that many of our actions seem thoughtless
Have you ever found yourself trying to find the right word? Your brain is trying to find the right word by inferring possible relationships with words that are similar to the one you wish to use Your brain then maps all the similar words together linking information until you find your response and answer – all this happens in a split second!
The Cognitive Process Encounter Problem When humans begin the cognitive process, they try to rearrange information in new forms that will allow them to answer a question or solve a problem. Encode or store info Infer possible relationships Map Information Apply possible responses NO Does answer work? Respond YES
Deductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning: applying general assumptions to specific cases an argument whose premises make its conclusion certain
Deductive Reasoning • All turtles have shells. The animal I have captured is a turtle. I conclude that the animal in my bag has a shell. • A guitar has strings and makes sound. A violin also has strings. Therefore the violin must also make sound. • All humans have brains. Mrs. Ryan is a human. Therefore she has a brain.
Inductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning– collecting specific information to form a general assumption (generalizations and false assumptions) • an argument whose premises make its conclusion likely
Inductive Reasoning • All sheep that I’ve seen are white. All sheep must be white. • Most men enjoy sports. John is a man. He must enjoy sports. • Most women enjoy cooking. My mom is a woman. She must enjoy cooking.
Let’s try some more…. All cats have tails. Xena is a cat. Therefore, Xena has a tail.
January has always been cold here in Siberia. Today is January 14, so it is going to be another cold day in Siberia.
My math teacher is skinny.My last math teacher was skinny. Math teachers are skinny.
The soccer game is on either Thursday or Friday. I just found out that the game is not on Thursday, so the game must be on Friday.
Socrates was Greek. Most Greeks eat fish. Socrates ate fish.
Deductive reasoning is more accurate than inductive reasoning...
In Partners With a partner, create your own example of both inductive and deductive reasoning
Cognitive Thinking Puzzles 1) Prisoner and rope: A prisoner was attempting to escape from a tower. He found in his cell a rope that was not long enough to permit him to reach the ground safely. He divided the rope in half, tied the two parts together, and escaped. How could he have done this?
Answer He cut the rope in half vertically.
Cognitive Thinking Puzzles 2) Ten dollars: Joe and Frank have the same amount of money. How much must Joe give Frank so that Frank has $10 more than Joe?
Cognitive Thinking Puzzles 3) Coin in the bottle! If you were to put a coin into an empty bottle and then insert a cork into the neck, how could you remove the coin without taking out the cork or breaking the bottle?
Answer Simply push the cork into the bottle and shake the coin out.
The nine-dot problem • Without lifting your pencil from the paper, draw exactly four straight, connected lines that will go through all nine dots, but through each dot only once. • • •
Answer • The figure below is the best known solution for the nine-dot problem. It is found that the line does not need to be within the area bounded by the nine-dots as you might have thought. Actually, the lines can be extended to solve the problem. • If you found that the problem was difficult to solve in the beginning, then it was probably because your mind was blocked by inhibitors. • • •
How is this possible? A man was born before his father, killed his mother and married his sister...
Answer His father was present during the birth His mother died giving birth to him He became a clergy man and preformed the marriage ceremony of his sister….
A man witnesses a murder and does not report it. He has no involvement with the murder. Why doesn’t he report it?
Answer A group of crows is called a murder...
The Carny A boy was at a carnival and went to a booth where a man said to the boy, "If I write your exact weight on this piece of paper then you have to give me $50, but if I cannot, I will pay you $50." The boy looked around and saw no scale so he agrees, thinking no matter what the carny writes he'll just say he weighs more or less. In the end the boy ended up paying the man $50. How did the man win the bet?
Answer The man wrote down “your exact weight” on the piece of paper...