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Warm Up:. Review for Quiz, Chapter Section 1. Quiz. Clear Desk No talking. Chapter 5 Section 2. The Second Industrial Revolution. Oil Boom. First commercial oil well discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 - Pennzoil Oil prospectors (wildcatters) began to search for oil

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warm up

Warm Up:

Review for Quiz,

Chapter Section 1



Clear Desk

No talking

chapter 5 section 2

Chapter 5 Section 2

The Second Industrial Revolution

oil boom
Oil Boom
  • First commercial oil well discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859

- Pennzoil

  • Oil prospectors (wildcatters) began to search for oil
  • Discovery of oil near Beaumont TX in 1901 began oil boom
  • Oil refined into kerosene, gasoline, petroleum products
  • began revolution in transportation and industry
  • Bessemer Process made steel production cheaper and easier

American Steel Production

  • The U.S. became the world’s top producer of steel
  • Steel helped transform the U.S. into a modern industrial economy

Uses of steel:

  • Locomotives
  • Rails
  • Bridges
  • Skyscrapers
  • Factories used steel machinery to make goods faster
  • 1865-1890 number of miles of railroad tracks increased 5x

- Cheap steel

- Federal land grants

  • Transcontinental Railroad completed in 1869
  • Union Pacific laid tracks eastward from Omaha
  • Central Pacific laid track westward from Sacramento
  • Met in Promontory Summit in Utah
  • Cut travel time across country from months to days

Effects of the Railroads

  • The railroads promoted trade
  • created jobs,
  • helped western settlement.
  • Railroads also led to the adoption of a standard time,
  • rail schedules could not accurately depend on the sun’s position,
  • USA divided into four time zones
warm up1

Warm Up:

Create a list of important business people & entrepreneurs.

What business did they make their money in?

the rise of big business
The Rise of Big Business

Factors behind the rise of big business

  • Entrepreneurs- risk takers who start new businesses
  • Capitalism- an economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
  • Laissez-Faire Capitalism - French for “leave alone”, refers to an economic system where companies operate without much government interference
new business organization
New Business Organization


  • A business with the legal status of an individual
  • Owned by people who buy stock, (or shares), in the company
  • A Board of Directors makes the decisions
  • Corporate officers run the day to day operations
  • Corporations can raise money by selling stock
  • Stockholders can only lose the amount of money they invested in the business
  • Corporations can continue to exists after founders leave/die
new business organization1
New Business Organization


  • A group of corporations who join together under the same leadership so they can control and industry.


  • A company or trust that controls and entire industry
  • Can raise prices or lower quality at will
the gilded age
The Gilded Age
  • The period of economic expansion in the late 19th century marked by corporate leaders amassing staggering fortunes
industrial tycoons
Industrial Tycoons
  • To increase profits and grow businesses:

Vertical integration

  • the combination of companies which are at different stages of the production process.

Horizontal Integration

  • The combination of companies that are in the same business
read industrial tycoons
Read: Industrial Tycoons
  • Captain of Industry- Business leaders who help business grow and gave away money to help others.
  • Robber Barons - forced many companies to go out of business and treated their workers poorly.
  • Summarize how the industrial tycoon made his fortune, and what he did with it.
  • Was he a captain of industry or a robber baron?
inequality of wealth
Inequality of Wealth
  • As tycoons like Rockefeller, Carnegie, Vanderbilt, and Morgan amassed large fortunes
  • Many industrial workers scraped by in $500 per year
  • By 1890, ten percent of the population held 75% of the nations wealth
read gospel of wealth

Read Gospel of Wealth

Answer Questions on a separate sheet of paper

inequality of wealth1
Inequality of Wealth

Social Darwinism

  • the belief that Charles Darwin’s ideas of natural selection also apply society.
  • Stronger people, businesses and nations would prosper
  • Weaker ones would fail

Do you think that the rich deserve to be rich, and the poor to be poor?

  • What are potential problems with economic inequality?
  • Do you think that the level of economic inequality that existed during the Gilded Age exists today?
warm up2

Warm Up:

In general, how would you characterize is the economy doing right now?


In the third quarter of 2010, corporate profits reached a record high

  • American businesses earned profits at an annual rate of $1.659 trillion
what are some ways that the government can solve these problems

What are some ways that the government can solve these problems?

Unequal Distribution of Wealth

Declining Tax Revenue

Record Debts and Deficits

warm up3

Warm Up:

If you have a lot of Christmas shopping to do, and very little time, what is the most effective means of getting it done?

How do you know the best things to get people for gifts?

mass marketing
Mass Marketing
  • Retail merchants looked to maximize profits
  • New forms of marketing

Brand names

  • Allowed mass produced goods to be marketed nationally
mass marketing1
Mass Marketing


  • Goal to get consumers to consume a specific brand
  • Aimed at women
  • Ads in magazines
mass marketing2
Mass Marketing

Department Stores

  • Sold many different types of products under one roof
  • Made shopping more convenient for consumers
  • Located in cities
department stores
Department Stores

Macy’s in New York 1858

Lord and Taylor’s 1861

mass marketing3
Mass Marketing

Mail Order Catalogues

  • Allowed rural customers access to a variety of goods
  • Everything from shoes to houses
government action
Government Action
  • Government grew uneasy about power of corporations

Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)

  • Made it illegal to form trust that interfered with free trade
  • Ineffective
problems in the workplace
Problems in the Workplace
  • 9% of Americans controlled 75% of wealth
  • Industrial workers received low wages
  • people worked 6 days a week 14 hours a day
  • children worked
  • work conditions were dangerous and unhealthy
problems in the workplace1
Problems in the Workplace
  • immigrants were willing to work for low wages & in poor conditions
  • workers who wanted to improve their conditions found that they could not

- their bosses could easily hire the unemployed to take their places.

workers organize
Workers Organize
  • Conditions became so bad, that workers began to organize into unions to improve their conditions
  • Organized labor hoped to pressure employers for better pay and improved conditions
methods used by unions
Methods Used by Unions
  • Strikes- refusal to work
  • Boycotts- refusal to buy a companies products
  • Collective Bargaining – workers negotiate as a group with employers

- “Closed shop”- workplace that only hires union members

warm up4

Warm Up:

What were some complaints that workers had in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

knights of labor
Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor was begun in 1869

  • Goal to organize all workers into a single union
  • Accepted unskilled workers, African Americans, women
  • It only barred liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers,
  • campaigned for economic and social reform
  • Equal pay for equal work, 8 hour work day, end to child labor.
knights of labor1
Knights of Labor
  • Led by Terence V. Powderly
  • the Knights won a number of strikes for the eight-hour day,
  • they staged a successful strike against Jay Gould’s Wabash Railroad in 1885
  • membership reached 3/4 of a million workers.
great railroad strike of 1877
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  • Baltimore and Ohio Railroad announced 10% wage cut
  • Workers responded by blocking the movement of trains
  • Strikes spread, blocking freight traffic for a week
  • Clashes between strikers and militias grew violent
  • In Pittsburgh soldiers fired on rioters
  • Crowds burned railroad property
  • President called in federal groups to suppress labor unrests
the haymaker riot 1886
The Haymaker Riot 1886
  • May Day (May 1st ) Labor Protest by Knights of Labor

- National protests for 8 hour workday

  • In Chicago, on May 3rd police break up fight between workers and scabs
  • May 4th protests to call attention to police brutality at protests
  • a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing 11 and injuring over 100.
  • People blamed foreign born union members for violence
    • Eight men with foreign sounding names were charged with murder and conspiracy
    • All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, with little evidence
companies respond
Companies Respond
  • Corporations had many weapons against unions

- hiring strikebreakers

- asking the courts to order strikers to stop striking, and if they continued, to bring in troops.

- hiring “scabs” or replacements

- “lockouts” to starve strikers into submission

  • often, workers had to sign “ironclad oaths” or “yellow dog contracts” which banned them from joining unions.
american federation of labor
American Federation of Labor
  • Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886

Major Goals

  • Better salaries
  • better work conditions
  • eight hour workday
american federation of labor1
American Federation of Labor


  • It consisted of an association of self-governing national unions
  • each of which kept its independence
  • with the AFL unifying overall strategy.
american federation of labor2
American Federation of Labor
  • AFL composed of skilled laborers
  • it was willing to let unskilled laborers fend for themselves.
  • Critics called it “the labor trust.”
homestead strike 1892
Homestead Strike 1892
  • Worker strike and Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Factory
  • Steelworkers angry over pay cuts
  • Workers took control of the factory

- AFL refused to call a boycott Carnegie Steel products

  • Company hired 300 Pinkerton detectives

- Armed with rifles and dynamite

  • Forced strikers to surrender
  • 16 killed & dozens wounded
pullman strike 1894
Pullman Strike 1894
  • Pullman Palace Car Company severely slashed wages
  • Laid off 1/3 of workers
  • Strike of American Railway Union organized by Eugene Debs
  • Urged members not to work on trains that used Pullman cars
  • Railroad traffic paralyzed from Chicago to California

- AFL did not support Pullman strikers

  • Federal troops dispatched to break up strike

- Mail had been disrupted

public responds
Public Responds
  • The middle-class, annoyed by the recurrent strikes, grew deaf to the workers’ outcry.
  • The view was that people like Carnegie and Rockefeller had battled and worked hard to get to the top
  • workers could do the same if they “really” wanted to improve their situations.
results of labor movement
Results of Labor Movement
  • From 1881 to 1900:
  • there were over 23,000 strikes involving 6,610,000 workers with a total loss to both employers and employees of about $450 million.
  • labor unions were only embraced a small minority—3%—of all workers.
  • In 1894, Labor Day was made a legal holiday.
  • The late 1800’s remained an era of big business
warm up5

Warm Up:

What distinguishes the modern way of life?

(What makes our life modern?)

transportation revolution
Transportation Revolution


  • Horse drawn passenger vehicles were the earliest form of mass transit
  • In the 1830’s most cities had horse cars, rolling along rails in the street
  • 1900, most cities had replaced horse drawn cars with electric streetcars, or trolleys
transportation revolution1
Transportation Revolution


  • As cities grew, traffic became a problem
  • Boston opened the first underground subway in the US in 1891
  • NYC subway opened in 1904
transportation revolution2
Transportation Revolution


  • Internal combustion engine was invented in Germany in mid 1800’s
  • Karl Benz began production of first automobile in 1886
  • Charles and Frank Duryea built first practical automobile in US in 1893
  • Early cars were playthings of the wealthy
transportation revolution3
Transportation Revolution


  • Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the first successful airplane in Kitty hawk NC in 1903
communications revolution
Communications Revolution


  • Samuel Morse patented a method for sending messages instantly over wires with electricity in 1837
  • Morse Code stood for letters in the alphabet
  • Telegraph grew with the railroads
  • Telegraph wires strung up along railroad lines
  • Train stations had telegraph offices
communications revolution1
Communications Revolution


  • Patented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876
  • First time voice able to be transmitted long distances
  • By 1900, over 1 million phones
  • Christopher Latham Sholes invented first practical typewriter in 1867
  • Developed keyboard pattern that is still in use today
  • Could produce legible documents quickly
thomas edison
Thomas Edison
  • Opened his own research lab in 1876
  • The Wizard of Menlo Park

Inventions include:

  • Electric vote counting machine
  • Stock ticker
  • Phonograph
  • Wireless transmitter
  • Electric light bulb
  • Motion picture camera
  • Projector

Over 1,000 patents

chapter 5 section 21

Chapter 5 Section 2

Quiz on Friday