Summer warm season vegetables
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SUMMER (WARM SEASON) VEGETABLES. Summer or warm season vegetables need: sunshine (long hot days) warm soil warm air In order to: grow and mature develop sugar develop flavor. For warm season vegetables, cold temperatures mean: no germination no flowers

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Summer warm season vegetables l.jpg

SUMMER(WARM SEASON) VEGETABLES


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Summer or warm season vegetables need:

sunshine (long hot days)

warm soil

warm air

In order to:

grow and mature

develop sugar

develop flavor


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For warm season vegetables, cold temperatures mean:

no germination

no flowers

slow growth

no fruit

no flavor


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What is in season?

  • Lima Beans

  • Okra

  • Peppers

  • Summer Squash

  • Tomatoes

  • Corn

  • Cucumbers

  • Eggplant

  • Green beans

  • Jimaca



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CORN

  • Varieties

    Yellow Black

    White Red

    Blue Baby

    Multi-colored

  • New varieties are extra sweet.

  • Sugar converts to starch after harvesting.


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    BLACK CORN-PERU

    RED CORN

    ANCIENT CORN

    MULTI-COLORED

    BLUE CORN

    WHITE CORN


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    CORN

    • Cooking

      • Boiling – 3 to 5 minutes

      • Roasting

      • Grilling

      • Baking

    • Commonly eaten on

      the cob in US.


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    CORN

    • CULTURE

      • Mexico – 7,000 YEARS OLD

      • Thai – corn ice cream

      • Hispanic – masa, tamales, arepas, tortillas

      • US southern – corn meal, corn bread, corn fritters

      • New England – corn chowder, corn pudding

      • Italy (north) - Polenta

    • Animal fodder


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    MAYAN CORN MASK

    INDIAN CORN





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    ARMENIAN CUCUMBER

    JAPANESE CUCMBER


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    WHITE CUCUMBERS

    ENGLISH (BURPLESS) CUCUMBERS

    PICKLING CUCUMBERS


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    CUCUMBERS

    • Native to India

    • Commonly eaten raw – can be cooked

    • Peeled or unpeeled

    • 3 Basic Types

      • Slicing or Salad

      • Pickling

      • Gherkins


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    CUCUMBERS

    • Commercial – wax coating

    • Shriveled ends = old

    • Bitter taste – growing conditions

    • Larger cukes = more seeds

    • Remove seeds & gel

      • More digestible for some

      • Prevents watering down dish


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    SNAP BEANS(GREEN BEANS)


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    SNAP/GREEN BEANS

    • Varieties

      • Edible pod beans

        • Snap

          • Green

          • Purple

            • turn green

              when cooked


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    SNAP BEANS

    • Golden

    • Wax

      • Look waxy

      • Don’ taste it


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    SNAP BEANS

    • Romano

      • Italian

      • Thicker,flatter

    • Haricot Vert

      • Filet beans

      • Pencil-thin


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    PEPPERS(CHILES)


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    Varities

    Sweet

    Bell

    Pimiento

    Banana

    Italian

    Hot

    Chile

    Jalapeno

    Serrano

    Tabasco

    Cayenne

    Hungarian Wax

    PEPPERS


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    Capsaicin

    Heat

    Veins and seeds

    Not the walls

    Scoville Heat Units

    Measure of heat

    Jalapeno

    2,500 to 4,000

    Tabasco

    60,000 to 80,000

    Color not a factor



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    OKRA

    • Varieties

      • Green

      • Red

      • White


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    OKRA

    OKRA FLOWER HIBISCUS FLOWER


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    OKRA

    • Large pods are tough

    • Does not store well

      • Toughens

      • Loses color

    • Came from Africa on slave ships.

    • Called “Lady Fingers”


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    OKRA

    • Usually served hot

    • Sticky juice – cooked

    • Acts as thickener

    • Described as

      • Slimy

      • Ropy


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    OKRA

    • Popular in:

      • India

      • Africa

      • Caribbean

      • Southern US

        • Cajun

        • Creole

    Sti


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    OKRA

    • Cooking

      • Boil

      • Braise

      • Steam

      • Saute

      • Microwave

      • Fry

        • Southern US – dipped in cornmeal



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    TOMATOES

    • Varieties

      • Over 500

      • Wide range of shapes, sizes, colors

    • 3 Categories

      • Cherry Tomatoes

      • Round/Slicing Tomatoes

      • Plum/Paste Tomatoes


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    TOMATOES

    • Heirloom

      • Old, non hybrid varieties

    • Hybrid

      • A cross between 2 genetically different plants

    • Specialty

      • Different or unusual – might be a heirloom or a hybrid


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    TOMATOES

    • Never refrigerate tomatoes – flavor loss

      • Exceptions: extreme heat, over ripe

    • Ripen in a brown bag out of sunlight

    • Vitamin A content determined by color

      • Orange – most

      • Red and yellow

      • White – the least

    • Nutrients in the gel around

      the seeds


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    TOMATOES

    • Native to South America

    • Believed poisonous until 1700’s

    • In the top 5 favorite vegetables in US

    • Each American eats 20 lbs. of fresh tomatoes annually, plus 70 lbs. of processed-ketchup, salsa, BBQ sauce

    • Not a vegetable – a fruit

    • Lycopene & beta carotene give red tomatoes their color


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    TOMATOES

    • Southern US favorite

      • Fried Green Tomatoes



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    EGGPLANT

    • Varieties

      • Color

        • Purple-black

        • Green

        • Pink

        • White

        • Yellow

        • Orange


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    EGGPLANT

    • Shapes

      • Oval

      • Oblong

      • Round


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    TURKISH EGGPLANT

    CHINESE EGGPLANT

    VIETNAMESE EGGPLANT


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    AFRICAN EGGPLANT

    ROSA BIANCA – ITALIAN EGGPLANT

    AMERICAN EGGPLANT

    INDIAN EGGPLANT



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    EGGPLANT

    • Name

      • Early fruit small, white, round

    • Culture

      • India or maybe China

      • Eggplant Parmigiana – Italy

      • Caponata – Italy

      • Ratatouille – France

      • Moussaka – Greece

      • Baba Ghanoush – Middle East


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    EGGPLANT

    • Cooking

      • Never eaten raw

      • Cook thoroughly

      • Spongy texture

        • Soaks up oil

      • Cook quickly-hot pan

      • Salt and press prior to cooking

        • May remove bitterness


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    EGGPLANT

    • Limited storage

    • Dull color, brown spots=old

    • Peeling

      • Depends on the recipe

      • Depends on the eggplant

        • older & tougher - yes

    • Discolors when cut

      • Oxidizes

        • lemon juice, water





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    SUMMER SQUASH

    • Varieties

      • Chayote

      • Crook-necked

      • Scalloped/Pattypan

        • Green, yellow, white

      • Straight

        • Green, yellow

          • Zucchini

      • Round

        • Sunburst


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    SUMMER SQUASH

    • Summer and Winter Squash

      • Both grown in summer

      • Summer is immature

      • Winter is mature

        • Harvested in fall

        • Hardened rind


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    SUMMER SQUASH

    • Small are best – no longer than 8 inches

    • Round squash – no larger than 4” dia.

    • Larger squash = more and larger seeds

    • 95% water

    • Absorbs other flavors

    • Do not peel

    • Eat raw or cooked

    • Flowers are edible


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    SUMMER SQUASH

    • Cooking

      • DO NOT OVERCOOK!

        • Steam

        • Sauté

        • Grill

        • Bake

        • Microwave

        • Stuff



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