Digital Content Protection Jean-Charles Hourcade Senioor Vice-President, Research & Innovation CTO, THOMSON
An Historical Perspective (1) • Digital Content Protection (CP) started with Conditional Access (CAS) • CAS has been effective for protecting Content, because operated within a Secure environment • Secure : closed, walled garden business model, trustworthy devices (STBs)
An Historical Perspective (2) • Digital Content distributed through Optical Pre-recorded Media could not be protected • CD was unprotected from Day 1 • CD and DVD drives were integrated into PCs • PCs are open computing and networking platforms • DVD-CSS was hacked • PCs are connected to the Internet • -> 500m music titles available, 500k video transactions per day, FOR FREE… • Content moved to an Unsecure environment
Today’s Paradox • Secure environments : • CAS enabled Pay-TV (Satellite, Cable) • Mobile Phones, Game consoles… • …all closed, based on trustworthy devices • Unsecure environments : • CD and DVD players and recorders • PCs connected to the Internet + peripherals • But more Content (movies) is available in Unsecure than in Secure environments !
3 – 6 months 6 – 9 months 6 – 14 months 12 – 15 months 24 – 30 months 36 – 42 months Film-Based Theatrical Release PPV (e.g., inDemand, DirecTV) Home Video e.g., DVD/VHS Rental & Sell-Through) Pay TV (e.g., HBO, Showtime) Networks/ Cable TV Airline & Hotel Syndication 28% 2% 0.7% 57% 4% 4% 3% Post-theatrical revenues represent three quarters of total industry revenues • Piracy primarily impacts post-theatrical revenue streams (in the US and Europe) and compresses window release strategy : • Content must be made available sooner (derived from in-theater piracy) • Content must be made available globally (which calls for international day-and-date release) Typical revenue numbers for a >$10m box-office movie
Preserving Integrity of Content through Distribution Windows is Critical • MPAA estimates that the US Film industry loses in excess of €3B annually in potential WW revenue due to piracy • In 2000, over 20m pirated optical discs were seized (mostly in Asia) • Between 400,000 and 600,000 copies of movies would be downloaded illegally each day (source: Viant Consulting) • Men in Black II DVD is already available on e-Bay, but won’t officially hit the street until the end of the year
Current security measures are often limited in scope • Reels of films and master tapes are hand-delivered via courier throughout North America and internationally • Film prints can be left in un-manned projection booths • But : • MPAA approves traditional building security (video surveillance, tracking measures, etc.) • “Hot” features demand extra security as illustrated by Star Wars Episode II • Feature identified under an alias title • Master elements are stored in specific locked cabinet • Reinforced video surveillance • Limited number of people working on the project
The Analog to Digital transition is forcing content owners and their vendors to think about content and content protection differently • Transition to digital creates new risks for piracy : • Mass replication of digital content with pristine quality • Uncontrolled distribution of digital content across digital networks (P2P) • De-CSS enables access to DVD quality content. • Studios fear Napsterization of film content • The music industry example is a harsh lesson • Movies.com and moviefly.com are studios’ attempt to deal with demand for digital delivery of content in a structured way • The Napster fear does not necessarily lead to rational behavior
Five Questions a Content Owner Must Ask Themselves Regarding Content Protection Technologies….. • What am I trying to protect and when am I trying to protect it? • Who am I trying to prevent copying my content? • What proportion of the illegal copying do I expect to prevent with this content protection technology? • Who is going to “police” the anti-piracy measure? • How much will it cost me to implement the copy protection?…..Is it financially worth it?
Copy Protection Technology Challenges • Transparency • Will it affect the viewing / user experience? • Robustness / Effectiveness • Will it truly prevent copying and for how long? • Renewability • Can the copy protection be renewed if it is broken by utilizing new keys etc.? • Compatibility • Will the copy protection work on the installed base of CE devices?
Window: Issues & Solutions Post Production Access and Security Fingerprinting, watermarking, conditional access, Triple DES encryption Release Prints In-Theatre Camcorder copying “Fingerprinting” and anti-copying technology Digital Cinema Access and Security Encryption, fingerprinting, secure transmission Digital Transmission Access and Security Conditional access/Triple DES encryption Multiple Solutions are Emerging across the Content Value Chain
Pre-recorded DVD-Video Copy Protection • Physical / Authenticity • 3dcd Holographic Discs • Holographic stickers and other anti-theft devices on retail package • Electronic Copy-defeating Technologies • Analog Domain • Macrovision (upsets VCR’s AGC circuitry) • Digital Domain • CSS (Content Scramble System) • DVD Forum-approved digital copy protection system. Non-renewable in hardware. • Widely defeated since release of DeCSS program • Easydivx, Smartripper etc. DVD-to-CD utilities available on WWW
SmartRight • SmartRight : a Thomson proposal to expand the Secure Environment into the home • Expands Security to all compliant Consumer Products • Part of a Personal Private Network • Enables detachable Rights and Renewability through SmartCards • Enables new business models, in connection with CAS/DRM, to content owners’, distributors’, and consumers’ benefit
SmartRight Implementation Status • Recognized as a credible solution • Studios/MPAA • OK with concepts and technical solution • Legal/business discussions started • Partnership: • Canal + Technologies, Gemplus,Micronas,Nagravision, Pioneer,Schlumbergersema, ST • DVB : SmartRight under examination as baseline architecture for DVB-Copy Protection System
Conclusion • Protection of High-Value Digital Content will shape the Media Industries’ future development and business models • Solutions will only come from convergence between Content Industry and CE Industry