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Who Makes the Rules?. The rules governing amateur radio under U.S. control are made by an agency of the U.S. government, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) .

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Who Makes the Rules?


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    1. Who Makes the Rules? • The rules governing amateur radio under U.S. control are made by an agency of the U.S. government, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). • These rules are published in what we hams usually call “Part 97.” It would be a really good idea to download a copy of Part 97 to refer to as you study. You can get a copy in several different formats from: • http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/ • regulations/news/part97/ Release 1.0 - September 2006

    2. What is an Amateur Radio Operator? • The FCC says an amateur operator is a person named in an amateur operator/ primary license grant in the FCC ULS database. (See § 97.3(a)(1)) • Before a person can become an amateur operator, the person must get a license from the FCC. In order to get that license, the person must take a test such as the Technician exam you are studying for right now. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    3. What is an Amateur Radio Station? • According to the FCC, an amateur radio station is a station in an Amateur Radio Service consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio communications. • To be an amateur radio station, the station has to be licensed by the FCC and capable of actually communicating. (See §97.3(a)(5)) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    4. The Purposes of Amateur Radio • You may think that the purpose of amateur radio is to have fun. Well, you can certainly have a lot of fun with amateur radio, but according to the FCC, that is not one of the purposes of amateur radio. • Part 97 lists five purposes of amateur radio. They are: Release 1.0 - September 2006

    5. The Purposes of Amateur Radio • “Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications.” • Hams provide communications during emergencies and at many public events. Hams provide this service at no charge. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    6. The Purposes of Amateur Radio • “Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.” • Hams are often the first to come up with new ideas for improving radio communications. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    7. The Purposes of Amateur Radio • “Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical phases of the art.” • Hams learn the technical side of radio in order to improve their own skills. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    8. The Purposes of Amateur Radio • “Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.” • Hams provide a pool of trained radio operators that can be called on during emergencies. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    9. The Purposes of Amateur Radio • “Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability to enhance international goodwill.” • Hams spread goodwill as they communicate with other hams all over the world. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    10. Amateur Radio License Classes • There are three different classes of amateur license that may be earned today. They are: • - Technician – This is the entry level license, and the one you are working on right now. • - General – The next level license. It requires that you pass a slightly harder test, and that you learn Morse Code, but it is the ticket to most long distance radio contacts. • - Extra – This is the toughest license to earn, but it gives you access to all amateur radio frequencies and modes. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    11. Amateur Radio License Classes • (Note: There are two other license classes that are no longer being issued – Novice and Advanced. You don’t need to know these for the test, but you may hear them mentioned on the air.) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    12. How Do You Get an Amateur License? • A volunteer examiner (VE) is an amateur accredited by one or more Volunteer Examiner Coordinators (VECs) and who volunteers to administer amateur license exams. (See § 97.509(b)) • To get your first amateur license, you will have to take a Technician test before a team of at least three volunteer examiners at a scheduled VE session. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    13. What Happens When You Pass the Test? • When you visit a volunteer examination session, you can take any of four different tests. These tests are called “elements.” Element 1 is a Morse code test, Element 2 is the Technician test, Element 3 is the General Test, and Element 4 is the Extra test. • When you pass one or more elements, you are given a “Certificate of Successful Completion of Examination” (CSCE). If it qualifies you for a license, it is your proof that you passed if paperwork should be lost. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    14. What Happens When You Pass the Test? • But let’s say you go to a VE session and pass your Technician exam. That qualifies you for the Technician license. While you are there, you try the General exam, and you manage to pass it. • You don’t qualify for the General license until you pass the Morse code test. However, your CSCE is good for proof that you passed the General for exactly 365 days. If you pass the code test at any VE session and present that CSCE within 365 days you will be upgraded to General. • But remember, the CSCE is good for no more than 365 days! (See §97.505(a)(6)) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    15. Your Volunteer Examiners • The FCC says that there must be three volunteer examiners present to administer the Technician exam, and they all must be General class licensees or higher. • (See §97.509(a)(b)(3)(i)) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    16. Harmful Interference • When two stations transmit on the same frequency, somebody is not going to be heard. Whether it is intentional or not, the FCC says any transmission that disturbs other communications is “harmful interference.” • You should always avoid causing harmful interference. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    17. Check-Up Time! Now let’s try the questions from this group. You should make a note of any that you miss for later review. Release 1.0 – September 2006

    18. T1A01 • Who is an amateur operator as defined in Part 97? • A. A person named in an amateur operator/primary license grant in the FCC ULS database • B. A person who has passed a written license examination • C. The person named on the FCC Form 605 Application • D. A person holding a Restricted Operating Permit Release 1.0 - September 2006

    19. T1A01 Answer - A • §97.3(a)(1) • Amateur operator. A person named in an amateur operator/ /primary license station grant on the ULS consolidated licensee database to be the control operator of an amateur station. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    20. T1A02 (B) • What is one of the basic purposes of the Amateur Radio Service as defined in Part 97? • A. To support teaching of amateur radio classes in schools • B. To provide a voluntary noncommercial communications service to the public, particularly in times of emergency • C. To provide free message service to the public • D. To allow the public to communicate with other radio services Release 1.0 - September 2006

    21. T1A02 Answer - B • §97.1(a) • (a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    22. T1A03 • What classes of US amateur radio licenses may currently be earned by examination? • A. Novice, Technician, General, Advanced • B. Technician, General, Advanced • C. Technician, General, Extra • D. Technician, Tech Plus, General Release 1.0 - September 2006

    23. T1A03 Answer - C • § 97.501 • Each applicant must pass an examination for a new amateur operator license grant and for each change in operator class. Each applicant for the class of operator license grant specified below must pass, or otherwise receive examination credit for, the following examination elements: • (a) Amateur Extra Class operator: Elements 1, 2, 3, and 4; • (b) General Class operator: Elements 1, 2, and 3; • (c) Technician Class operator: Element 2. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    24. T1A04 • Who is a Volunteer Examiner? • A. A certified instructor who volunteers to examine amateur teaching manuals • B. An FCC employee who accredits volunteers to administer amateur license exams • C. An amateur accredited by one or more VECs who volunteers to administer amateur license exams • D. Any person who volunteers to examine amateur station equipment Release 1.0 - September 2006

    25. T1A04 Answer - C • §97-.509(b) • (b) Each administering VE must: • Be accredited by the coordinating VEC; • (2) Be at least 18 years of age; • (3) Be a person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified... • NOTE: VE stands for “volunteer examiner.” Release 1.0 - September 2006

    26. T1A05 • How long is a CSCE valid for license upgrade purposes? • A. 365 days • B. Until the current license expires • C. Indefinitely • D. Until two years following the expiration of the current license Release 1.0 - September 2006

    27. T1A05 Answer - A • §97.505(a)(6) • (a)The administering VEs must give credit as specified below to an examinee holding any of the following license grants or license documents: • *** • (6)A CSCE: Each element the CSCE indicates the examinee passed within the previous 365 days. • NOTE: CSCE stands for “Certificate of Successful Completion of Examination.” Release 1.0 - September 2006

    28. T1A06 • How many and what class of Volunteer Examiners are required to administer an Element 2 Technician written exam? • A. Three Examiners holding any class of license • B. Two Examiners holding any class of license • C. Three Examiners holding a Technician Class license • D. Three Examiners holding a General Class license or higher Release 1.0 - September 2006

    29. T1A06 Answer - D • §97.509(a)(b)(3)(i) • (b) Each administering VE must: • *** • (3) Be a person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified below: • (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced or General Class in order to administer a Technician Class operator license examination; Release 1.0 - September 2006

    30. T1A07 • Who makes and enforces the rules for the Amateur Radio Service in the United States? • A. The Congress of the United States • B. The Federal Communications Commission • C. The Volunteer Examiner Coordinators • D. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Release 1.0 - September 2006

    31. T1A07 Answer - B • §97.5 • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been empowered by Congress to produce regulations for the Amateur Radio Service. These rules are a part of the Federal Code of Regulations, and are commonly referred to as “Part 97” by U.S. hams. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    32. T1A08 • What are two of the five fundamental purposes for the Amateur Radio Service? • A. To protect historical radio data, and help the public understand radio history • B. To aid foreign countries in improving radio communications and encourage visits from foreign hams • C. To modernize radio electronic design theory and improve schematic drawings • D. To increase the number of trained radio operators and electronics experts, and improve international goodwill Release 1.0 - September 2006

    33. T1A08 Answer - D • §97-1 • The rules and regulations in this Part are designed to provide an amateur radio service having a fundamental purpose as expressed in the following principles: • (a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. • (b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art. • (c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical phases of the art. • (d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts. • (e) Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability to enhance international goodwill. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    34. T1A09 • What is the definition of an amateur radio station? • A. A station in a public radio service used for radio communications • B. A station using radio communications for a commercial purpose • C. A station using equipment for training new broadcast operators and technicians • D. A station in an Amateur Radio Service consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio communications Release 1.0 - September 2006

    35. T1A09 Answer - D • §97.3(a)(5) • Amateur station. A station in an amateur radio service consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radiocommunications. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    36. T1A10 • What is a transmission called that disturbs other communications? • A. Interrupted CW • B. Harmful interference • C. Transponder signals • D. Unidentified transmissions Release 1.0 - September 2006

    37. T1A10 Answer - B • §97.3(A)(23) • Harmful interference. Interference which endangers the functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication service operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    38. Group T1B Group T1B covers the International Telecomunications Union (ITU) regions, international amateur regulations, the US amateur call sign structure, special event calls, and the “vanity” call sign program. Release 1.0 – September 2006

    39. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) • The FCC makes the rules for amateur radio for the U.S., but because radio waves cross borders, nations have cooperated with each other where radio is concerned. • That’s where the “International Telecommunications Union” (ITU) comes in. Among other things, the ITU coordinates international rules for amateur radio. • (See §97.3(a)(28)) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    40. ITU Regions • The world is divided into three ITU Regions. This helps ITU planners and nations to manage frequency allocations, such as TV channels, AM, FM and shortwave frequencies, and (of course) the all important ham bands! Release 1.0 - September 2006

    41. The United States is in Region 2 Release 1.0 - September 2006

    42. Your Call Sign • Soon after you pass your Technician test, you will get your brand new license in the mail. It will feature a brand new call sign that will become your identity on the air. There are a couple of things you’ll want to know about it. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    43. Your Call Sign • First, your call will start with one of four letters - A, K, N or W. • Second, the United States is divided into ten call areas. Your call sign will contain a single number, 0 through 9, representing the call area where you live when your license is issued. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    44. Your Call Sign • As a Technician licensee, your license will be a “two by three call” – two letters, followed by the call area number, followed by three more letters. Here are some examples of 2 by 3 call signs • KA4PUV • WB4IUY • WA4SIS • KI4OTM Release 1.0 - September 2006

    45. So What Will Your Call Sign Be? • The FCC has a sequential list of call signs. You’ll get the first available call on the list. Call signs are assigned in sequential order. • (See §97.17(d)) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    46. What If You Don’t Like Your Call Sign ? • If you don’t like the call sign you get, for a fee, the FCC will let you pick your own call sign from a list of available calls. • For example, suppose Elmer H. Fudd would like to have a call sign with his initials, and he finds out that WA9EHF is available. Through a program called the “vanity call sign program” he can apply for that call. (See §97.19(d)) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    47. Club Station Calls • An amateur radio club can also get a call sign for club use, and it is easy to do. • To get a club station call sign, a trustee has to submit an application for the club call through a Club Station Call Sign Administrator. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    48. Special Event Calls • If you are organizing a special radio event, such as a special event station for a July 4th celebration, you can apply for a temporary “one by one” call. The one by one call consists of one of the four U.S. call sign beginning letters (A,K,N or W), a call area number 1 through Ø, and a third letter. Examples are N4J, K3X, A9Z, W2T, and WØW. • Any licensed amateur may apply for a temporary call. Release 1.0 - September 2006

    49. Reciprocal Operating Agreements • Your amateur license allows you to operate anywhere in the U.S. or its possessions. In addition, if the U.S. has a reciprocal operating agreement with a foreign country, you can operate in that country and hams licensed in that country can operate here. The rules that allow this kind of operation vary from country to country, so you need to see whether the U.S. has a reciprocal operating agreement with any country you wish to visit, and what the requirements are. (See §97.107) Release 1.0 - September 2006

    50. Check-Up Time! Now let’s try the questions from this group. You should make a note of any that you miss for later review. Release 1.0 – September 2006