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Post it. Pollutants are dangerous chemicals in the air are called pollutants. Name as many air pollutants as you can from last lesson. Extension: Circle those which could lead to acid rain. Hydrocarbons and fossil fuels. To develop an understanding of how air pollutants are produced.

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post it
Post it

Pollutants are dangerous chemicals in the air are called pollutants.

Name as many air pollutants as you can from last lesson.

Extension: Circle those which could lead to acid rain

hydrocarbons and fossil fuels
Hydrocarbons and fossil fuels

To develop an understanding of how air pollutants are produced

grade criteria
Grade criteria

Grade A* - Generate combustion reactions using balance symbol equations.

Grade A – Summarise combustion reactions using word equations.

Grade B – Explain how atoms are conserved during combustion reactions.

Grade C – Identify hydrocarbons and fossil fuels by their molecular pictures

Grade D –Define the terms ‘hydrocarbon’ and ‘fossil fuels’, giving examples of each

combustion fuels and hydrocarbons
Combustion, fuels and hydrocarbons

When a substance burns, it is said to combust.

Combustion is a rapid reaction between a substance and oxygen that releases heat and light energy.

A fuel is a substance that reacts with oxygen (combusts) to release useful energy.

Many fractions obtained from crude oil are used as fuels because they contain hydrocarbons that burn easily and release a large amount of useful energy.

hydrocarbons what s so good about them
Hydrocarbons– What’s so good about them?
  • Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms only
  • Can have different carbon chain lengths
  • Length of the chain determines the use
  • Crude oil is a mixture of lots and lots of different hydrocarbons.
complete combustion of hydrocarbons

carbon dioxide

+

+

hydrocarbon

oxygen

water

Complete combustion of hydrocarbons

Plenty of air is needed to provide enough oxygen for a hydrocarbon fuel to burn completely.

The blue flame of a gas hob or a Bunsen burner is an example of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon (in this case, natural gas).

What are the products of thecomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?

slide8

carbon dioxide

+

+

hydrocarbon

oxygen

water

Do you think that combustion is as simple as:

slide9

VCOP – What are particulates?

Consider your observations, which flame would it have been?

grade criteria1
Grade criteria

Grade A* - Generate combustion reactions using balance symbol equations.

Grade A – Summarise combustion reactions using word equations.

Grade B – Explain how atoms are conserved during combustion reactions.

Grade C – Identify hydrocarbons and fossil fuels by their molecular pictures

Grade D –Define the terms ‘hydrocarbon’ and ‘fossil fuels’, giving examples of each

plenary methane bubbles
Plenary: Methane bubbles
  • What is a hydrocarbon? Name an example
  • Give a general word equation for combustion
  • Name a product of incomplete combustion? How is it harmful?
  • Balance the equation
homework
Homework
  • Complete pages 20 – 23/24/25
explain why crude oil is an invaluable resource
Explain why crude oil is an invaluable resource
  • Know the origins of crude oil
  • Describe the process to separate crude oil
  • Recognise the uses of the fractions of crude oil
hydrocarbons what s so good about them1
Hydrocarbons– What’s so good about them?
  • Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms only
  • Can have different carbon chain lengths
  • Length of the chain determines the use
  • Crude oil is a mixture of lots and lots of different hydrocarbons.
slide18

How crude oil was formed

  • Microscopic plants and animals die and fall to the sea bed
  • Layers of sand and mud form on top
  • Pressure and high temperature cause oil to form
  • Oil obtained by drilling
explain why crude oil is an invaluable resource1
Explain why crude oil is an invaluable resource
  • Know the origins of crude oil
  • Describe the process to separate crude oil
  • Recognise the uses of the fractions of crude oil
slide20

The Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

Average number of C atoms in chain

Fraction

Boiling pt.

Refinery gas

3

< 25oC

40oC

Petrol

25 – 60oC

8

Naptha

60 – 180oC

10

Kerosine

180 – 220oC

12

Diesel oil

20

220 – 250oC

Fuel oil

40

250 – 300oC

Lubricating oil

80

300 – 350oC

Bitumen

120

> 350oC

350oC

HeatedCrude Oil

explain why crude oil is an invaluable resource2
Explain why crude oil is an invaluable resource
  • Know the origins of crude oil
  • Describe the process to separate crude oil
  • Recognise the uses of the fractions of crude oil
the m olymod challenge
The Molymod challenge
  • Rules Carbon atoms always make 4 bonds
  • Hydrogen atoms are smaller
  • Hydrogen atoms can only make one bond

Make the molecule methane (1 Carbon to 4 Hydrogens)

Make the molecule propane (3 carbons to ? Hydrogens)

Make the molecule hexane (? Carbons to 14 Hydrogens)

slide25

Complete the table

Extension: what is the word equation for combustion?