Gendered divisions of labour and the intergenerational transmission of inequality Jonathan Gershuny Centre for Time Use Research Department of Sociology University of Oxford For GENET Conference, December 2009
This Talk • Proposition: • National systems of regulation of access to work have effects on life chances which differ markedly by gender and class-of origin. • Based on two unpublished papers: • Man-Yee Kan, Oriel Sullivan, JG; “Gender Convergence in Domestic Work” (2009) • JG; “Dynamics of Social Position” (2008) Kan, Sullivan and Gershuny are in the Sociology Department and Centre for Time Use Research, University of Oxford.
Definitions • Portable orEmbodied(vs Fixed)capitals: • “human” (Becker, Mincer) or • (1) “economic”, (2) social, (3) cultural (Bourdieu) • Embodied capitals formed: • In household of origin… • …then through the formal educational system… • …and recursively through practices of daily life. • time-use gives empirical estimates of practices • Embodied capital dynamics life chances • Good/bad outcomes result from current capitals • Capitals indicate advantages and outcomes • Hence, new approach to intergenerational social mobility.
The day and the lifecourse Theoretical intuition: Daily choices among paid work, unpaid work, leisure/consumption capitals form at differential rates differentiate individual life-chances • consequences for transmission of position to children
Two steps (two data sources) • STEP 1 (Multinational Time Use Study) • Typologies of national systems of work regulation and gender ideologies… • …are strongly associated with different historical changes in work patterns • STEP 2 (British Household Panel Study) • Lifecourse changes in gender work-sharing… • …polarise class mobility and life-chances
Welfare Regimes and Gender Ideologies • liberal market regimes: • UK, the USA, Canada and Australia • modified breadwinner gender ideology, women both paid work & caring roles • social democratic nordic regimes: • Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden • dual earner family model, high employment rate of both women and men • conservative/corporatist regimes: • Netherlands, France, Germany, Austria • weak familist gender ideology, men primary breadwinners, women carers • southern regime: (later addition to typology) • Spain, Italy and Israel • traditional familist gender ideology, strongeremphasis on women’s family role
Step 1. Public regulation matters Note: • corporatist, liberal and nordic groups all start out rather similar in the 1960s • Gender equality in total work (“isowork”) Implications: • Public policy has a real effect on gendered balance between paid and unpaid work • Gender differentials in rates of accumulation of economic capital affected by regime choices.
Human capital: the “Essex Score” Data from British Household Panel Study • 5000 UK households, 1991—present Variables in the model: • Age, age squared, Education dummies • MOW scores (mean occupational wage, 2 digit categories, standardised to 0-100) • Work, family care months over past 4 years • Dummies for top MOW decile and deciles 7 to 9 • Product of MOW dummies and age, age squared • Sex only in selection equation Kan and Gershuny ISER WP 2006-03
Contrasting “leavers” and “stayers” • Consider all women in employment at time of BHPS interview before first birth: • “leavers”—women not in employment the year after first birth. • “stayers”—women in employment at all of six subsequent annual interviews. • Note third intermediate category: non-leavers with various other post-birth strategies. (details of regression modelling available on request)
Step 2. Gender balance matters UK as example of liberal regime lacking strong childcare & paternity leave regulations: • For women with parents in top quintile: • Income (humcap) penalties falling from the 1930s to 1950s birth cohorts, to around 20%. • For women with parents in bottom quintile: • penalties rising from 1920s to 1950s birth cohorts, from 40% to 70% 7 yrs after birth.
L/S penalties interact with parents’ class situation and regimes Conclude: genderedpolarisation in intergen. transmission of life chances… • … results from choices made under constraints of national system of regulation • …and this effect is intensified by concurrent rise in marital dissolution: • He leaves with the human capital • She’s left with the baby… • …and another child grows up in poverty.