Business-to-Business Markets: How and Why
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Business-to-Business Markets: How and Why Organizations Buy. Chapter Objectives. business-to-business (B2B)markets Define & explain business demand explain classifying business or organizational markets. Chapter Objectives. buying situation buyers buying center buying decision process

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Chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

  • business-to-business (B2B)markets

    • Define & explain

  • business demand

    • explain

  • classifying business or organizational markets

Chapter objectives1
Chapter Objectives

  • buying situation

  • buyers

  • buying center

  • buying decision process

  • growing role of B2B e-commerce

Business markets buying and selling when stakes are high
Business Markets: Buying and Selling When Stakes Are High

  • Business-to-business marketing:

  • the marketing of goods & services

    • that businesses & other organizations buy

  • for purposes

    • other than personal consumption

Business markets buying and selling when stakes are high1
Business Markets: Buying and Selling When Stakes Are High

  • B2B (organizational) markets include:

  • manufacturers,

  • wholesalers,

  • retailers,

  • other organizations

B2b characteristics
B2B Characteristics

  • Multiple buyers

  • Number of customers

  • Size of purchases

  • Geographic concentration

Eaton Video

Business to business demand
Business-to-Business Demand

  • Derived demand:

  • Caused by demand for consumer goods or services.

Figure 6.2

Business to business demand1
Business-to-Business Demand

  • Inelastic demand:

  • Occurs when changes in price

  • have little or no effect

  • on the amount demanded.

Figure 6.2

Business to business demand cont d
Business-to-Business Demand (cont’d)

  • Fluctuating demand:

  • Small changes in consumerdemand

  • create large increases or decreases in business demand;

  • life expectancy of product can cause fluctuating demand

Business to business demand cont d1
Business-to-Business Demand (cont’d)

  • Joint demand:

  • demand for two or more goods

  • used together

  • to create a product

Types of b2b markets


Types of B2B Markets

  • Producers:

    • for production of other goods and services

  • Resellers:

    • for reselling, renting or leasing

  • Organizations

    • Government markets

    • Not-for-profit institutions

North american industry classification system


North American Industry Classification System

  • NAICS:

  • a numerical coding of industries

  • in the United States, Canada, and Mexico

  • Replaced SIC codes

The buying situation
The Buying Situation

  • “Buy” class framework:

  • identifies degree of effort firm needs

  • to collect information and

  • make a purchase decision

The re buying situation
The re-Buying Situation

  • Straight rebuy:

    • Routine purchases that require minimal decision-making

  • Modified rebuy:

    • Previous purchases that require some change and limited decision-making.

  • New-task buy:

    • New and complex or risky purchases that require extensive decision-making.

The professional buyer
The Professional Buyer

  • Trained professional buyers

  • carry out buying in B2B markets:

    • Purchasing agents

    • Procurement officers

    • Directors of materials management

The buying center
The Buying Center

  • The group of people in an organization who participate in a purchasing decision

    • Initiator

    • User

    • Gatekeeper

    • Influencer

    • Decider

    • Buyer

Step 1 problem recognition
Step 1: Problem Recognition

  • Someone sees that a purchase can solve a problem

Step 2 information search
Step 2: Information Search

  • Buying center

    • searches for information about products & suppliers

  • Develops product specifications –

    • a written description

    • of quality, size, weight, color, etc.

  • Identifies potential suppliers

  • obtains proposals

Step 3 evaluation of alternatives
Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives

  • Buying center assesses proposals

  • Evaluations include

    • discount policies,

    • returned-goods policies,

    • cost of repair,

    • terms of maintenance,

    • cost of financing, etc.

Step 4 product and supplier selection
Step 4: Product and Supplier Selection

  • Single sourcing:

    • relying on a single supplier.

  • Multiple sourcing:

    • buying from several different suppliers.

  • Reciprocity:

    • “I’ll buy from you, and

    • you’ll buy from me.”

Step 4 product and supplier selection cont d
Step 4: Product and Supplier Selection (cont’d)

  • Outsourcing:

    • firms obtain outside vendors

    • to provide goods/services

    • that might otherwise be supplied in-house

Step 4 product and supplier selection cont d1
Step 4: Product and Supplier Selection (cont’d)

  • Crowd sourcing:

    • firms use expertise

    • from around the globe

    • to solve a problem

Step 4 product and supplier selection1
Step 4: Product and Supplier Selection

  • Reverse marketing:

    • buyers try to find capable suppliers

    • and “sell” their purchase to the suppliers

    • ?? Divertive buying???

Step 5 postpurchase evaluation
Step 5:PostpurchaseEvaluation

  • Assess whether the performance of the product

  • and the supplier

  • is living up to expectations

Business to business e commerce
Business-to-Business E-Commerce

  • Internet exchanges between 2+ businesses

  • Include exchanges of information, products, services, and payments

    • EDI, JIT…

  • Going on much longer than B2C

Intranets extranets and private exchanges
Intranets, Extranets,and Private Exchanges

  • Intranets

  • link employees

  • in a private corporate

  • computer network.

Intranets extranets and private exchanges1
Intranets, Extranets,and Private Exchanges

  • Extranets

  • allow authorized

  • suppliers, customers, & other outsiders

  • to access the firm’s intranet.

Intranets extranets and private exchanges2
Intranets, Extranets,and Private Exchanges

  • Private exchanges

  • link an invited group

  • of suppliers and partners

  • over the Web.

Security threats


Security Threats

  • Security threats

  • come from hackers and

  • well-meaning employees

  • who give out passwords

Security threats1


Security Threats

  • Firewall:

    • Hardware and software

    • that ensures only authorized individuals

    • gain entry to a computer system

Security threats2


Security Threats

  • Encryption:

    • Software that scrambles a message

    • so only another individual (or computer)

    • with the right key

    • can unscramble it

Discussion individual activity
Discussion/Individual Activity

  • You’re the marketing manager for a small securities firm (a firm that sells stocks and bonds) whose customers are primarily businesses and other organizations. Your company is considering using the Internet to provide information and service to its customers.

  • Outline the pros and cons of this move, the risks your firm would face, and your recommendations.

Real people real choices
Real People, Real Choices

  • PPG Industries (Vicki Holt)

  • Vicki chose Option 3: continue with Intercept brand IGU, but invest directly in IGU manufacturing to provide an alternative to Cardinal

  • The move has been well

    received by all except the

    large independent IGU


Marketing plan exercise
Marketing Plan Exercise

  • Pick a product you often buy in the grocery store

    • What key elements of the organizational market (the grocer) must the product’s manufacturer plan for, to market to the grocer successfully?

    • How do the elements you identified in question 1 differ from those the store uses in marketing to you as an end user?

    • Which market for the product is more important (the grocer or you), and why?

Marketing in action case you make the call
Marketing in Action Case:You Make the Call

  • What is the decision facing Airbus?

  • What factors are important in understanding this decision situation?

  • What are the alternatives?

  • What decision(s) do you recommend?

  • What are some ways to implement your recommendation?

Keeping it real fast forward to next class decision time at reebok
Keeping It Real: Fast Forward to Next Class Decision Time at Reebok

  • Meet Que Gaskins, VP of global marketing for the RBK division of Reebok

  • Allen Iverson’s endorsement changed Reebok’s image, but it was still number 2.

  • The decision: How could Reebok capture the pulse of youth culture in the long run?

Real people real choices1


Real People, Real Choices

  • PPG Industries (Vicki Holt)

  • How to react to competitor Cardinal’s strategy?

    • Option 1: continue with current strategy

    • Option 2: acquire an independent IGU manufacturer

    • Option 3: continue with Intercept brand IGU, invest in IGU manufacturing

Discussion Reebok

  • As director of purchasing for a motorcycle manufacturer, you’ve been notified that the price of an important part used in the manufacture of the bikes has nearly doubled…you see your company having three choices:

    • Pass the cost on to the customer

    • Absorb the increase in cost

    • Buy a lower-priced part

  • Discuss the pros and cons of each

Discussion Reebok

  • Many critics of government say strict engineering and other manufacturing requirements for products governments purchase increase prices unreasonably, and taxpayers end up paying too much because of such policies

    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of such purchase restrictions?

    • Should governments loosen restrictions on their purchases?

Discussion Reebok

  • The gatekeeper determines which possible sellers are heard and which are not

    • Does the gatekeeper have too much power?

    • What policies might the firm implement to make sure all possible sellers are treated fairly?

Discussion Reebok

  • Should companies always give their business to the lowest bidder?

    • Why or why not?

Group activity
Group Activity Reebok

  • Some critics complain that outsourcing sends much-needed jobs to competitors overseas while depriving U.S. workers of opportunities.

    • Break into small groups and take a side in this controversial argument. Present your arguments in a debate format