Cmpe 472 Wireless Internet and M-business
Introduction • Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business, or mobile business • Internet+wireless+e-business = M-Business • Going on-line anywhere at anytime and using multiple devices • New business opportunities • Exponential growth (keeps growing) • No of mobile internet service users: 1bn by 2004 (the Economist 2001).
Characteristics of M-business • Ubiquitous computing • Anywhere, any time • Conveninet, instant connectivity • Very personal • Device owner has an exclusive access to the contents/ services • Service providers know who the owner is • Varied users, usage contexts • Elementary school students, parents, old people • Location and context-sensitive apps and services • Work-play: business purpoes and personal fun • People seem willing to pay for mobile services
Drivers of M-business • High mobile phone penetration: 18mm subscribers (Finland: 80%, HK: 90%) • Convergence of the internet and the mobile devices • Improvements in technology (bandwidth, device functionalities): transition to the 3rd generation • Declining prices: device, service prices • Explosion of e-commerce in general: more opportunities available on-line, i.e., more opportunities for m-business • M-business based on mobile devices can help developing countries fill the gap of digital divide: • More internet users in China than the US by 2005.
M-business Applications • Current applications • Conduct on-line transactions • Make purchases • Send e-mail • Future applications • A wireless office • In-hand, on-the-go entertainment • Migration from a PC-centric to a multi-device model
Wireless Devices • Wireless development • First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone • Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide • Third generation (3G) technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56 K modem (0.4 to 2m bps) • Wireless devices • Personal digital assisstants (PDAs) • Digital cellular phones • Two-way pagers, laptops,...
Phone Evolution Roadmap Timing of mass Market adoption 20th century Late 90s 2002 2005 Text messages Colour graphics Functionality Voice Video streaming Pull text content Graphical content SMS Technologies Bluetooth, GPS WAP Wireless in home Wireless anywhere Location Cord in home
Information Appliances • Clear trend for the convergence of several mobile devices including intelligent home appliances • PDA phone: PDA + cell phone • Phones with MP3 player, voice recorder, digital camera, GPS • Wireless control of refrigerator, TV, DVD through a cell phone
Key Characteristics of Wireless Device • Ubiquitous interactivity • Personal device: always handy and available at all times on a person • User identity: the device carries its user identity; distinctly personal and the usage can be tracked down to an individual rather than households (e.g. PC) • Location aware • Easy to track down where the user physically is as long as the wireless device is on (using GPS) • Important marketing implications
Some Limitations of Current Wireless Devices and Services • Need huge investment for infrastructure • GSM to 3G costs 200-300% of GSM investment • Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive • Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network as well as the speed • Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers • Small screen, keyboard: usability, navigation problems
Some Limitations of Current Wireless Devices and Services (cont’d) • Lack of contents • Rapidly developing standards • Legacy of wire-line internet • Security (viruses, tapping, hacking) • Safety (radiation, brain cancer?) • However, wireless technology is growing rapidly
Wireless Access • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) definition: • Wireless access is an application of radio technology and personal communication systems. The key characteristic of wireless access is the use of a multiple access radio system instead of wires (e.g. copper or coaxial cables) in the distribution/ access network. • Wireless channel: between users/ terminals and wireless networks.
Limited Wireless Communication Channels • Frequency assigned to wireless communication is limited • Explosive growth of demand • Critical qustion: find more efficient ways of using the assigned frequency band so that multiple users can gain simultaneous accesses • What technology manipulates: three dimensions (space, frequency, time) • SDMA, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) • Frequency reuse • A covered area (e.g. Bebek) is divided into many small cells • A channel (frequency band) used in one cell to be reused by a different user in another cell as long as there is ENOUGH SEPARATION between the two cells to minimise interference
Cell Clusters Actual coverage Area of Cell 3 Cell Cell 1 overlaps 6 others Different frequencies must be used in adjacent cells Seven different sets of frequencies required Cell 7 Cell Cell 4 Cell 5 Actual coverage Area of Cell 1
SDMA Many cells can share same frequencies if separated in space Pattern can be replicated over the area
FDMA, TDMA • FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) • Each channel uses a different frequency bandwidth • TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) • Assign a frequency band for multiple channels by slicing time slots • Each channel uses certain time slots • There is some downtime: not using a channel all the time • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
CDMA • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) • Assign a large frequency band for multiple channels • Calls are split into packets and the packets are tagged with identifying codes • Often in the format of FDMA+CDMA • Considered most efficient; creating capacity triple that of comparable TDMA • Generally CDMA>TDMA>FDMA
Types of Multiple Access Frequency Division FDMA Code Division CDMA Time Division TDMA Call 4 Call 9 Call 8 Call 7 Call 3 Time vs Frequency frequency frequency Call 6 Call 5 Call 4 frequency Call 2 Call 3 Call 2 Call 1 Call 1 time time time Everyone talks in a different room to prevent interference. Since the conversation can’t be heard from another room, it can be filtered from the other by going to the other room. Within each room, everyone takes turns talking to prevent İnterference. Within each room, one person is talking at once, so they must talk fast to say everything. Everyone speaks a different language at the same time in the same room. Since each language is unique, one may be filtered from another. Conversational Analogy
Mobile Technology Generations • First • Analog, circuit-switched • Second • Digital, circuit switched (GSM, CDMA) 14.4 kbps • Advanced second • Digital, circuit switched, internet enabled (WAP) 14.4 to 64 Kbps • 2.5 • Digital, packet-switched, TDMA (GPRS, EDGE), CDMA 40-400 Kbps • Third • Digital, packet-switched, wideband CDMA (UMTS, CDMA2000, W-CDMA) 0.4-2Mbps • Fourth • Data rate 100 Mbps; achieves “telepresence”
MobileTechnology Time Frame 2000 WAP GPRS 3G Concentrates mobile industry on connectivity & inter-operability Starts Consumer Interest in Data Services Introduces packet-based systems Commercial data services launched Usage indicates demand picture and leads the way to 3G Data speeds reach levels eough for streaming Platforms & technologies evolve, costs decline to reach mass market 2001 2003+
Glossary • 2G: second generation technology category for digital cellular networks • 2.5G: umbrella term for technologies designed to add 3G capabilities to existing cellular networks • 3G: new digital cellular network technology designed to enable very fast data transmission speeds and delivery of multimedia content.
Glossary (Cont’d) • AMPS: advanced mobile phone service, analog cellular network system used in the US • EDGE: enhanced data rate for GSM evolution, an enhancement to bring the data-transmission rate of TDMA network up to the speed of basic 3G networks (2.5G) • GPRS: general packet radio services, an enhancement designed to introduce packet-switching to GSM networks (2.5G).
Glossary (Cont’d) • ITU: international telecommunication union, the standards body of the telecom industry • IMT-2000: international mobile telecommunications 2000, an ITU initiative aimed at harmonising the various efforts under way to create 3G networks • CDMA2000: an implementation of wideband CDMA backed by the US and Korea; a 3G network type
Glossary (Cont’d) • SMS: short message service, a means of conveying messages upto 160 characters long to and from GSM cell phones • WCDMA: an implementation of wideband CDMA supported by Europe and Japan; a 3G network type; also known as UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications service) in Europe • Cdma2000 and WCDMA share basic technology (CDMA). WCDMA marks a break in technology for GSM network operators, whereas cdma200 isa logical development for CDMA networks.
Wireless Technology Evolution Timeline 2002 2004 2006 2001 2000 Bandwidth 14.4 Kbps 64 Kbps 100-170 Kbps 2 Mbps Very fast TECHNOLOGY CDMA IS-95a IS-95b IS-95c CDMA 3G (IMT2000) 4G IS-707 TDMA IS-136 IS-136+ GPRS EDGE EDGE GSM Basic HSCSD GPRS Circuit switched WCDMA CDMA Packet switched
CDMA2000 vs WCDMA • WCDMA (Europe and Japan) vs CDMA2000 (US and Korea) • WCDMA seemed to be the de-facto standard only 2-3 years ago, but things changed • CDMA2000 increases its market share fast (50% increase for the last 3 years) • Two representative 3G services available now • Japan (FOMA: freedom of mobile multimedia access) • Korea: (CDMA2000 1xEV-DO: evolution-data optimised)
M-business • E-business using wireless devices with internet access • New possibilities for commerce beyond internet access • Enormous potential in many areas (B2C, B2B) • Currently B2C wireless apps are more rapidly emerging
New Competition, New Opportunities • Wireless technology is attracting interest from virtually every industry, creating interesting competitive and partnership opportunities • Mobile service providers vs banks • Automotive multimedia m-commerce apps
Location-aware Apps • Vehicle tracking • Automatic vehicle location (AVL): using GPS device installed in a vehicle • Can be used for rapidly dispatching taxis, ambulances, police vehicles, trucks • Can be used for navigating optimal routing in unfamiliar geographical areas or heavy traffic • Can also be used for tracking cargo, delivery, baggege, giving customers more accurate info
Automatic Vehicle Location Base Station Software Mobile GPS Unit Communications Network
Location-aware Apps • Shopper assisstance, product location, and shopping • Provide shoppers ads, promotional events, price alerts at a shopping mall • Allowing shoppers to locate and compare products using aDB containing info on products, locations of stores, and distance from the users’ current location, alleviating the need to visit several stores in a particular area • Allowing shoppers to buy on-line using a mobile device • Can be applied to mobile retailing, ticketing and reservation
Location-based services involving maps geocoding Enhanced billing Personalised portals Buddy finder Emergency assisstance Find nearest services find location mapping visualise routing directions content intelligence
Location-aware Apps • E-911 (Enhanced 911) • Mandates wireless carriers to provide location-identification capabilities that enable rescuers to locate 911 callers • Designed to improve emergency response time • Interest increased after 9/11, earthquakes, etc. • Can be used for rescuing people in a disaster area • Firemen, emergency crew, doctors, patients assistance • Firemen in a building under fire (automatic warning signal for oxygen remaining) • Sending doctors vital signs of patients in critical situations • Patients with Alzheimer’s: exact location, the location of the nearest police station and contact information for family members
Telematics (or Telemetry) • Integration of • Wireless communications • Vehicle monitoring systems • Vehicle location devices • Diverse apps for cars • Remote vehicle diognostics • Install GSM chip sets in cars to monitor performance and to provide an early warning message to the manufacturer indicating what problem is occuring • Emergency breakdown service (Mercedes Benz) • Multimedia services and m-commerce right on the dashboard • Smart traffic products: • Nokia: by 2010 every vehicle will have its IP address
Mobile Financial Apps • Likely to be one of the most important components of m-business • Involve a variety of apps • Mobile banking, brokerage, money transfer • Can turn a mobile device into business tool, replacing bank, ATM • Easy identification and authentication both for restricted access and for payment purposes, even replacing credit cards
Mobile Financial Apps • Micro-payment: small purchases such as vending through a wireless network • Can be implemented in several ways • Per minute phone call charge equal to the cost of vending item (Sonera for Pepsi) • Pre-paid numbers purchased from a service provider, bank, or credit-card co • To support financial transactions including micro-payments, amobile service provider could act as a bank, competing with a bank
A wearable bank • Cell phone • Pager • PDA • PC • TV • Card • ATM
Mobile Inventory Management (MIM) • Involves location tracking of goods, services, and possibly inventory • Rolling inventory • Involves multiple trucks carrying a large amount of inventory while on the move • Whenever a store needs certain items, it can locate a truck and JIT can be performed • JIT delivery of components in an assembly plant • New components required can be moved by a supplier at a certain speed after receiving a signal from the components reaching the assembly line or from the assembly line itself • Possible adjustment of assembly speed to match the arrival time of components
iButton • Java-enabled iButton • Communicates by contact at 142 Kbps • Small memory chips (ROM, RAM) in a stainless steel can • Uses: authentication, e-payment, access
Mobile Security System • Remote surveillance • Remote alarm verification • Monitor from work, abroad
Bluetooth • A wireless technology that provides short-range, high-speed voice and data communication between a variety of mobile digital devices • Conceived by Ericsson in 1994 • Bluetooth Special Interest Group (1998) • Initially comprising Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and Nokia • Developed an open specification for the technology and to encourage cross-platform capabilities for the different wireless devices • Currently over 2000 companies are supporting the standard and Bluetooth-enabled devices
Bluetooth Apps • Can create a personal area network (PAN) • Can be used to create wireless offices • Can remote control digital appliances at home • Mobile transactions between users and fixed points such as cash registers, vending machines, ticket readers • Ad hoc conferences among business users by establishing a temporary wireless LAN • Face-to-face meetings with shared computing resources allowing temporary documents and apps sharing • Advertising, conveying info
BLIP Zone • Bluetooth Local Infotainment Point • A small hub unit, with a 10-meter radius, and with Bluetooth connectivity • ınstalled at strategic places, providing people with info depending on their immediate situation and location • Shopping malls, buses, bars, restaurants will use BLIP as an infrastructure element to distribute info relevant to their businesses
Bluetooth Chracteristics • Packet switched • Uses radio frequency band (2.4 GHz) available worldwide, allowing for global compatibility • Lower power (1 milliwatt) making it suitable for small, battery-operated devices • Data transfer capability between devices: 10 – 100 meter range, bandwidth 1-2 mbps • Supports upto 8 devices in a network • Built-in security (encryption, authentication) • Non line-of-sight: penetrating walls and avoiding obstacles