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History of Health Education

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  1. History of Health Education

  2. Early History: • Trial and Error (lay-referral network) • Medical lore passed down from generation to generation • Throughout history people have always turned to some type of medicine man or physician for counsel

  3. Ancient Cultures: • Good hygiene practices • Paved streets, drains, sewer systems • Code of Hammurabi • Before science enabled us to determine pathogenic causes of disease, spiritual explanations and leadership prevailed

  4. Greeks: • Balance of physical, mental, and spiritual • Hippocrates and the“atomic theory” (p.43) • Recorded observations between disease and geography, living conditions, climate, and diet

  5. Romans: • Conquered the Greeks, but retained their medical knowledge • Exceptional builders of water and sewage systems • Attention to where they located towns and drainage • Advanced study of human anatomy and surgery

  6. Middle Ages: • In order for people to be protected, they built fortresses around their property and animals • Overcrowding and sanitation • Little emphasis on cleanliness in early Christianity • Disease was caused by sin or disobeying God • Time of great epidemics – bubonic plague

  7. Renaissance: • Beginning of change • Disease and plague still rampant • Bloodletting popular • “water casting” • Barbers performed surgery and dentistry • Hygiene of royalty

  8. Renaissance cont. • Printing press invented so classical writing could be reproduced • OK to study the human body and anatomy advanced • Leeuwenhoek discovered the microscope • John Graunt made advancement in epi • “health boards” began to be developed in communities

  9. Age of Enlightenment: • Disease and plagues still raged • Miasmas theory of disease took hold • Mind and body were dependent on one another • Edward Jenner discovered vaccine procedure for smallpox

  10. 1800’s (Bacterial period of public Health) • First half of the century diseases continued to rage • 1842 Edwin Chadwick’s report • 1849 John Snow and the Broad Street pump • Louis Pasteur – Germ theory of disease • Joseph Lister – antiseptic method

  11. Health Education & Promotion in the United States • Early colonial schools • 1647 – “Old Deluder” law • By mid 1800’s schools were tax supported and attendance was required • 1850 –first mandate to teach physiology and hygiene in all public schools • 1850 - Shattuck Report

  12. 1873 – APHA started • 1874-1890 Women’s Crusade, later called the Women’s Christian Temperance Union • 1890’s - medical inspections began • 1901- Thomas Wood

  13. 1914 - Demonstration projects began • 1914 – WWI, 1st large scale measure of health status of Americans • 1920’s-1930’s many studies designed to clarify the role of health education • Great Depression, 1929-1941 • WWII, 1939-1945

  14. 1950 – Health Education was emerging as integral part of elementary, secondary, & college curriculum

  15. 1970’s:The Era of Prevention • 1971 – Coalition of National Health Organizations formed • 1974 – LaLonde Report • ** Health Field Concept ** • 1974 – CDC was established • 1979 – Healthy People: The Surgeon General’s Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention was published

  16. 1980’s • Promoting Health & Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation • Initial Role Delineation study for Health Education • Examination of professional preparation programs and professional competencies • First Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES) recognized

  17. 1990’s • National Health Education Standards published • Responsibilities/competencies for entry-level Health Educators published • SOC designation for Health Educators • Competencies Update Project (CUP)

  18. 2000’s • Unified Code of Ethics • Report of Joint Committee on Health Education & Promotion Terminology • Promotion of CHES • Revised national HE competencies (3 levels) based on CUP • Outcome-Based Education & Practice

  19. Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act • Signed into law March 2010 • Expands health care coverage • Should help health education specialists • Focus on prevention & preventive services • Encourages & promotes worksite wellness • Evidence-based community prevention & wellness programs • Moves prevention toward the mainstream • Some components of the law are already in place • Major components required in 2014; not be fully implemented until 2019