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HKACC 207 Squadron First Class Cadet Training Aviation History. Since only the significant events of aviation history are going to mention through out this course, so cadets wants to have more information, please refer to the following websites: http://www.flyingmachines.org

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slide2

Since only the significant events of aviation history are going to mention through out this course, so cadets wants to have more information, please refer to the following websites:

http://www.flyingmachines.org

http://www.first-to-fly.com

http://www.historycentral.com/aviation/index.html

chinese
Chinese
  • The exact date and origin of the kite is not known but it is believed that they were flown in China more than two thousand years ago.
  • The earliest written account of kite flying was about 200 B.C. when the Chinese General Han Hsin of the Han Dynasty flew a kite over the walls of a city.
some pioneers of aviation

Some pioneers of aviation

Italian, Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

English, Sir George Cayley (1773 - 1857)

German, Otto Lilienthal, German (1848 - 1869)

American, Orville and Wilbur Wright (1871 - 1948) (1986 - 1912)

Brazilian, Santos Dumont (1873 - 1932)

American, Glenn Curtiss (1878 - 1930)

Louis Bleriot (1827 - 1936)

Igor Sikorsky (1889 - 1972)

leonardo da vinci 1452 1519 italian
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)Italian

About 1485 he drew detailed plans for a human-powered ornithopter, but there is no evidence that he actually attempted to build such a device.

sir george cayley 1773 1857 english
Sir George Cayley (1773 - 1857)English

He designed the first flight of a model glider in 1804; and was credited for the formation of many important flight theories.

sir george cayley 1773 1857 english1
Sir George Cayley (1773 - 1857)English

On top of the model glider, he built a large gliding machine that flew in 1853 with one man onboard.

otto lilienthal german 1848 1896 german
Otto Lilienthal, German (1848 - 1896)German
  • He was the foremost of the pioneers who discovered theories about flight and made over 2,000 flights; all in hang-gliders.
  • On August 9; 1896, after many tests of fixed-wing gliders, he crashed in his No. 11 monoplane and died.
orville wright 1871 1948 wilbur wright 1986 1912 american
Orville Wright (1871 - 1948) Wilbur Wright (1986 - 1912)American

They achieved the first controlled, powered flight for 12 seconds at 500 feet on December 17; 1903, in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, USA.

santos dumont 1873 1932 brazilian
Santos Dumont (1873 - 1932)Brazilian

The work of the Wright brothers inspired many European to think about flying.

A Brazilian, Santos Dumont, gave up his interest in airships and designed a monoplane made of bamboo and silk.

On 12 November; 1906, he set the first aviation record in Europe using his plane, 14-bis, flying 722 feet (220 meters) in 21.5 seconds with members of the Aero-Club du France in attendance. This flight was also credited as the first flight in Europe.

louis bleriot 1872 1936 french
Louis Bleriot(1872-1936)French

On 25 July 1909, he made the first flight through the English Channel (from Calais to Dover Castle) in 37 minutes.

glenn curtiss 1878 1930
Glenn Curtiss (1878 – 1930)

He is indeed the "Father of Naval Aviation” and built America's first seaplane in 1912.

the first trans atlantic ocean flight
The first Trans-Atlantic Ocean flight

Having done hardly, Curtiss went on to perfect the "Flying Boat”, which completed the first Trans-Atlantic Ocean journey of about 4,000 miles (from Rockaway Beach, N.Y. to Lisbon, Portugal) in 19 days.

He set off on 8 May 1919 and arrived on 17 May of the same year, during which he had stopped for repairing of engine and the plane either.

the first non stop aerial crossing of the atlantic
The First Non-stop Aerial Crossing of the Atlantic

Two RAF flyers Captain John Alcock (1892 - 1919) and

Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown (1886 - 1848)

Starting point: Newfoundland in England

Destination: Clifden in Ireland

Date: 14 June 1919

Duration: 15 hours and 57 minutes

Aeroplane used: Vickers-Vimy bomber

slide21

The statue celebrating this first non stop Transatlantic flight is to be seen at London's Heathrow airport.

england to australia less than 30 days
England to Australia less than 30 days
  • In 1919 the Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes announced the now famous ‘AIR RACE’.
  • A prize of £10,000 was to be awarded for the first machine to fly from London to Australia in 30 days or less.
  • Taking up the challenge, Ross Smith applied to the British company Vickers to supply a Vickers Vimy bomber for the race, and the Smith brothers flew their way into Australian.
  • Took off on Nov. 12, 1919 at Hounslow, England
  • Landed on December 10 at Darwin, Australia
  • Total flying time and distance: 135 hours 55 mins. and 17,911 km
slide25
Charles Lindbergh (1902 - 1974)AmericanThe first pilot to fly solo and non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean.

Date: May 20-May 21, 1927

Starting point: Long Island, New York

Destination: Paris

Aeroplane: Single-engine airplane - “The Spirit of St. Louis”

Flying time: 33 hrs 31 minutes

igor sikorsky 1889 1972 russian american
Igor Sikorsky (1889 –1972)Russian-American

He built and successfully flew his VS-300 helicopter in 1939.

Born in Kiev, Russia, on May 25, 1889, Mr. Sikorsky developed an early interest in aviation, thanks largely to the influence of his mother, who was a doctor, and his father, a psychology professor. He emigrated to the United States in 1919.

women in aviation timeline

Women in Aviation - Timeline

http://womenshistory.about.com/od/aviationpilots/a/av_timeline.htm

the first woman to fly an airplane solo
The first woman to fly an airplane solo
  • Madame Therese Peltier, Itatian (1873-1926)
  • On July 8, 1908 she made a flight of 656 feet with Léon Delagrange in Turin, Italy.
war and aviation

War and Aviation

First World War (1914 - 1918)

Second World War (1939 - 1945)

slide32
WHY?

In the early WWI, aircraft’s role was limited only to reconnaissance.

Later in the war, some of them were modified to become `fighters’ or even `bombers’ to project different aspects of air power.

in the result of technology advancement the warplanes could be divided into categories
In the result of technology advancement, the warplanes could be divided into categories.
  • Fighter
  • Ground Attack
  • Bomber
  • reconnaissance
  • Transport
  • Special Electronic Mission
  • Tanker
  • Reconnaissance
  • Antisubmarine Warfare
famous warplanes in wwii
Famous warplanes in WWII

BomberFighters

  • B17 Flying Fortress (USA) Spitfire (UK)
  • B24 Liberator (USA) Hurricane (UK)
  • B29 Superfortress (USA) Me 109 (Germany)
  • Lancaster (UK) Me 262 (Germany)
  • Mosquito (UK) Zero (Japan)
  • P-40 Kittyhawk (USA)
  • P-38 Lighting (USA)
  • P-47 Thunderbolt (USA)
  • P-51 Mustang (USA)
  • P-6F Hellcat (USA)
  • F-4U Corsair (USA)
development of engine
Development of engine

piston engine

piston engine with supercharger / turbocharger

gas turbine engine = jet engine = turbojet engine

slide36

Dr. Hans von Ohain (1911 - 1998) and Sir Frank Whittle (1907 - 1996) are both recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet engine. Each worked separately and knew nothing of the other's work.

Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent for the turbojet engine in 1930.

Hans von Ohain was granted a patent for his turbojet engine in 1936.

the first jet aeroplane
The first jet aeroplane

Hans von Ohain of Germany was an inventor of jet propulsion. He approached Ernst Heinkel, one of the larger aircraft industrialists in Germany.

Then they worked together, finally He 178, the first aeroplane powered by jet engine was flown on 27 August 1939 in Germany.

slide38
Back in Britain, the Air Ministry had become sufficiently impressed with Whittle's ground tests that an order was placed for a flight-worthy engine to be installed in an aircraft built by Gloster. The aircraft was completed in March 1941 and the engine the following May. Whittle's engine was first flown in the Gloster E.28/39 on 15 May 1941.
the longest flight in history
The longest flight in history

Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer (N277SF) is an aircraft designed by Burt Rutan.

Steve Fossett flew the GlobalFlyer from February 7, 2006 to February 11, 2006 and made a record of the longest flight of 26,389.3 miles.

slide42
On October 4; 1957, the first artificial satellite, `Sputnik’, was successfully launched by USSR, now called as Russia.
slide43

On Feb 1; 1958, USA succeeded in putting the satellite, Explorer I, into the orbit of the earth.

On 12 April 1961, Russia placed the world’s first spacemaninto orbit. He is Yuri Gargarin.

On 20 February 1962, US Marine Lt. Col. John Glenn became the first American to have made orbital flight.

the first men on the moon
The first men on the Moon

On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin carried by Apollo 11 and stepped on the moon.

slide45

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the NASA in 1958, partially in response to the Soviet Union's launch of the first artificial satellite.

What does NASA do?

To explores.

To discovers.

To seeks to understand.

A lot of space projects or program have been done and carrying out.

Mercury, Apollo, Mariner, Pioneer, Voyager….

slide46

Space shuttle (Space Transportation System)program is one of the famous programs of NASA.The program started in the late 1960s and has dominated NASA's manned operations since the mid-1970s. According to the Vision for Space Exploration, use of the Space Shuttle will be focused on completing assembly of the International Space Station in 2010.

slide47

Enterprise, the first Space Shuttle Orbiter, Enterprise never flew in space, but it was crucial to the Space Shuttle program. It is a series of approach and landing tests in 1977 proved the orbiter could fly in the atmosphere and land like an airplane, except without power -- like a glider.

slide48

Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space shuttle in NASA's orbital fleet.

It’s first mission, STS-1, lasted from April 12 to April 14, 1981.

On February 1, 2003, Columbia disintegrated during re-entry on its 28th mission; all seven crew members aboard were killed.

slide50

The first balloon flight in HKG

Aviation history of Hong Hong has been starting since 1891. American brothers, Charles Baldwin & Thomas Baldwin conducted a balloon flight in Happy Valley in 3 January 1891.

slide51

The first powered flight in Hong Kong

20 years later, the first controllable power flight was conducted by Mr. Charles Van den Born, a Belgium aviator, at Shatin in 18 March 1911 using Farman biplane.

slide52
On 14 December 1912, A. Kouzminsky, a Russian aviator, flew his Bleriot XI in Shatin again. The plane is the same type of aeroplane flying across the English Channel in 1909.
slide53

The first Chinese flew in HKG

On 7 and 8 August 1915, Mr. Tam Ken (Chinese) who was born and graduated from flying school in USA demonstrated a several flights using his self-made seaplane in Shatin.

slide54

In February 1921 a Canadian Chinese businessman, Lim On brought a Curtiss JN-4C Jenny (a biplane) to Hong Kong, and planned to have a flight from Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. However, the biplane crashed at Happy Valley.

The broken plane was bought and restored by an American, Harry Abbott afterwards.

slide55

Abbott School of Aviation

In 1925 Mr. Abbott ran his school of aviation using two Curtiss biplanes at a piece of land that was reclaimed from the Kowloon Bay. However, it closed due to business stagnation.

slide56

Hong Kong Flying Club

In late 1920s’ Hong Kong Government realized the important of air defense, so the government strongly supported the aviation activities. In 1929, Hong Kong Flying Club was formed and had two Avro Avian. Courses were conducted by flying instructors and engineers from UK.

However, the club was closed in 1933 due to damage of aeroplanes and financial problems.

slide57

Far East Flying Training School

At very beginning, it’s mother company, the Far East Flying Company, carried out trading business of aviation equipment to China. The manager was Vaughan Fowler, a former Wing Commander of RAF.

With the incidence of closure of Hong Kong Flying Club, the company suggested the government to transfer the subsidies to the company for opening a flying training school.

slide58

Far East Flying Training School

In 1933 both agreed to form a school, the Far East Flying Training School, located at the west end of Kai Tak. The school aimed to train civil pilots, engineers and wireless operators. Students came from many countries in Asia.

However, the invasion of Hong Kong by the Japanese in December 1941 resulted in closure of the school and its subsequent demolition.

slide59

After the war, the school made a rapid recovery and moved to new premises at the north-west corner of the airport, the present site of Hong Kong Aviation Club.

However, in 1962, typhoon Wanda caused extensive damage and the loss of aircraft. This resulted in pilot training activities having to be abandoned and, subsequently, that function was taken over by the Aero Club of Hong Kong.

The school then changed its name to the Far East Flying and Technical School.

slide61

Kai Tak Airport

The story of Kai Tak started in 1914. In order to provide enough luxury housing area in Kowloon Peninsular, a group of Chinese business men, including Ho Kai and Au Tak, established the Kai Tack Land Investment Company Limited in 1914 and applied to the government for a project of reclaiming land from Kowloon Bay.

The reclaimed land was named as Kai Tak reclaimed land ().

slide62

The project was started in 1916 and the process was in schedule at the beginning. However, due to economy recession, only the west part of the reclaimed land was developed into residential housing area.

The east part of the land was lend to Abbott School of Aviation and Royal Navy mother ship HMS Hermes for moorage it’s aeroplanes in 1925.

As the company confronted with the problem of bankruptcy in 1927, it sold the reclaimed land to the government that built an RAF base and airfield on the piece of land afterwards.

slide63

The basic constructions of Kai Tak aerodrome were completed in 1930. It consisted of some huts and an airfield instead of a runway.

Further establishments were made afterwards including a control tower, a crane and slipway to handle flying boats, hangars, offices, fire engine station and police station.

At these days, the east side was the commercial aerodrome and the west side was the RAF airbase.

slide64

The first aerodrome superintendent that was under the administration of the Harbour Department was appointed to supervise the operation of the aerodrome.

Whereas the duties of air traffic control was taken by RAF personnel.

The first tarmac runway (13-31), 457 metres long, was completed in 1939. During the Japanese occupation, a (07-25) runway 1,371 metres long was added and the earlier runway extended to the same length.

slide66

Development of Kai Tak airport

In 1954, the Government approved a master plan for airport development.

In 1958, a new 13-31 runway which was 2529 meters long was constructed on a promontory into Kowloon Bay. The name Hong Kong International Airport was officially adopted for Kai Tak Airport.

slide67

In 1962, a new passenger terminal building was built. Turboprop aircraft were being replaced by jets such as the Boeing 707, DC8 and de Havilland comet.

The first Boeing B747 operated by Pan American World Airways arrived on 11 April 1970. In those days to use RWY 13 pilots were required to have the runway in slight when the aircraft was near Cheung Chau Island.

slide68

In 1974, the visual approach was replaced by the Instrument Guidance System (IGS). With the aid of the IGS the runway could become visual to pilots when they were over the Kowloon Peninsula. This significantly increased the utilization of runway 13 under adverse weather conditions particularly during long periods of easterly prevailing winds.

slide69

In 1975, the runway was extended to 3,390 meters to meet the long haul operating requirements of the 31 airlines that operated into Hong Kong.

In 1976, the Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminal was opened. In the same year, Air Traffic Management was enhanced by the introduction of Secondary Surveillance Radar.

slide70

In order to cater for the strong increase in air traffic at Kai Tak during its remaining life before the availability of the replacement airport, Kai Tak was undergone a lot of expansions until 1994 including Terminal 2 of the Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminal which could handle 1.5 million tonnes of goods per annum, East and South Apron which provided additional 15 parking bays for B747-400 aircraft.

slide76

Landing video clips 1

Landing video clips 2

slide77

The New Hong Kong International Airport

Hong Kong Government realized that a new airport must have been built in order to fulfill the continuous development of Hong Kong economy in 1988.

The Government decided to build a new airport at Lantau Island by excavation of the islands of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau and a huge marine reclamation operation.

slide81

Overnight relocation began from Kai Tak on July 5, 1998.

Airport commenced operations on July 6, 1998. The New York-originated CX889 was the First flight landing at HKIA. This Cathay Pacific flight touched down at 0627. The first departing flight was the Manila-bound Cathay Pacific flight CX907. It left the airport at 0719.

slide82

Hong Kong International Airport (VHHH) is one of the most busy airports all over the world.

From January 2005 to January 2006, the airport handled about 266 thousand flights, 41 million passengers and 3 million tonnes of cargo.

For the 5th consecutive year, passengers have rated Hong Kong International Airport as the world's Best Airport.