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Laser Direct Manufacturing of Nuclear Power Components. Dr. Jyotsna Iyer , Dr. Scott Anderson , Gautham Ramachandran, Georgina Baca, Scott Heise, Dr. Slade Gardner 3 November 2014.

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laser direct manufacturing of nuclear power components

Laser Direct Manufacturing of Nuclear Power Components

Dr. Jyotsna Iyer, Dr. Scott Anderson, Gautham Ramachandran, Georgina Baca, Scott Heise, Dr. Slade Gardner

3 November 2014

Acknowledgment: “This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy , Office of Nuclear Energy, Idaho Operations, under Award Number DE-NE0000542”

Disclaimer: “This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.”

nuclear energy in the u s
Nuclear Energy in the U.S.
  • 104 reactors in the U.S. providing 20% of our electricity
    • 4 new plants under construction in U.S., >60 globally, >150 on order
  • Current Light Water Reactors (LWR) cost $10B-$12B/unit
    • Costly on-site construction
  • Next generation Small Modular Reactors (SMR) estimated $800M-$2B/unit
    • DOE SMR program funding ~$400M
    • B&W and NuScale selected for concept development
    • Factory fabrication, rapid installation
  • Advanced materials and manufacturing are significant industry drivers

Advanced/Affordable Manufacturing methods are key enablers for competing in $700B global market

doe nuclear energy enabling technologies neet advanced manufacturing methods amm
DOE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Advanced Manufacturing Methods (AMM)

LM CE&T Energy IPT funding cost-share and supporting industry engagement and growth opportunities

Net-Shape Manufacturing Demo Articles built in <18 hours, no assembly/joining required –

Fuel rod spacer grids manufactured using 316L SS and Inconel600

background for alternate nuclear materials selection
Background for Alternate Nuclear MaterialsSelection

N13137-02

Fuel Assembly

Fuel RodCutaway

FuelPellets

N13137-01

1400

Fuelrod

Very High Temperature Reactor

1200

Superficial-Water-Cooled Reactor

Clad

Gas Fast Reactor

100

Lead fast Reactor

Spacergrid

Molten Salt Reactor

800

Temperature (°C)

600

Fuelpellet

400

Sodium Fast Reactor

Generations II-III

200

UO2MOX

0

0

50

100

150

200

Displacements Per Atom (dpa)

Water flow

table of comparison criteria for selection of alternative nuclear materials
Table of Comparison Criteria for Selection of Alternative Nuclear Materials

Comparison criteria

Alternate Nuclear Materials

BASELINE: Traditional ferritic/martensitic steels (HT-9) or later generations of F/M steels

OPTION 1: ODS steels to examine effect of direct manufacturing methods on nanoscale oxide domains

OPTION 2: Inconel 800 series of materials to study the effect of processing parameters offered by direct manufacturing methods to improve performance under irradiation

OPTION 3: Among the refractory alloys, the Mo (TZM) alloys. These have a high operating temperature window and also, the most information on irradiated material properties

  • Low neutron absorption
  • Elevated temperature mechanical properties
    • Creep resistance
    • Long-term stability
    • Compatibility with reactor coolant
  • Resistance to irradiation-induced damage (greater than 200 dpa)
    • Radiation hardening and embrittlement
    • Void swelling
    • Creep
    • Helium-induced embrittlement
    • Phase instabilities

Based on customer feedback at Technical review, materials down-selected to 316SS, ODS steels and Inconel alloys

material down selection for dm demonstration
Material Down selection for DM Demonstration
  • Alloys: Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Incoloy 800, 316L SS, ODS Steels
  • Oxides: Yttrium, Cerium - Mix of nano- & micron- sized oxide particles selected for mixing

3 x 3 Grid

10 x 10 Grid

10 x 10 Grid

  • Emerging literature in Austenitic ODS alloys
  • Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications (http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/09/f2/Stubbins_Austenitic%20ODS%20NEUP.pdf)
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Austenitic ODS alloys (http://www.mme.iitm.ac.in/murty/?q=node/96)
process parameter effect on fabricated part density inconel 600
Process Parameter Effect on Fabricated Part Density – Inconel 600

Laser power of 195W makes the fabricated article almost insensitive to scan speed

process parameter effect on fabricated part density inconel 718
Process Parameter Effect on Fabricated Part Density – Inconel 718

Laser power of 165W most consistent for Inconel 718; more scatter in density data

microstructure characterization
Microstructure Characterization

QCML manufactured 56 of Inconel 600 samples

Fourteen were selected

Five samples were selected for microstructure characterization

Sample #12 was selected for mounting in both the x-y & z directions for a total of six samples

Metallography Procedure

Mount/ grind/ polish

Micrograph (photographs)

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Etch

Micrograph

SEM

Samples produced at the higher

speed rate and lower power

demonstrate more voiding

based micrographs

slide11

Backscattered Electron Imaging of Sample 600-195-1400

Top

Bottom

Middle

  • BSE imaging revealed the solidification/grain microstructure
  • Microstructure appeared similar in the three locations examined
  • No titanium nitride particles were detected (titanium nitride particles are typically found in wrought material)
  • Black areas in images are voids
microstructure comparison of inconel 600 bar stock sample vs additive manufactured sample
Microstructure Comparison of Inconel 600 Bar Stock Sample vs Additive Manufactured Sample
  • QCML manufactured 56 of Inconel 600 samples
  • Fourteen were selected
  • Five samples were selected for microstructure characterization

Metallography procedure

  • Mount/ grind/ polish
  • Micrograph (photographs)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  • Etch
  • Micrograph
  • SEM

Inconel 600: Sample 500X BSE 10kV not etched

Inconel 600: Bar Stock Sample

500X BSE 10kV not etched

Noticeable Grain Structure differences due to manufacturing process

examination of microstructure of edge transition
Examination of Microstructure of Edge Transition

Top Edge: Terminating Side

(a)

a) Inconel 600 Micrographs show (b) top edge (c) transitions (d) interior of sample at 500X

(b) Top Edge:500X

Side

Terminating Side

(c) Top Edge Transition:

500X

Side

Initiating Side

(d) Away from edge: 500X

test coupons r eady for mechanical testing
Test Coupons Ready for Mechanical Testing
  • This build layout produces 45 test coupons in a single build at 1100mm/s and 195W
  • The test coupons are cylinders with 0.5" diameter by 3" length. 
  • 15 cylinders are in horizontal orientation
  • 15 cylinders are in vertical orientation
  • 15 cylinders are at 45 degrees with respect to the horizontal.

Inconel 600 longitudinal, transverse, and 45deg specimen blanks after LDM

Samples heat treated (900C for 1-2hr) to remove after fabrication to prevent warping

next steps
Next Steps
  • Mechanical & microstructural characterization of test coupons for Alloy 600
  • Test specimen build for Alloy 718, Alloy 800
  • Characterization of Alloy 718 & Alloy 800 test specimens
  • Test coupon build for Alloy 718 & Alloy 800
  • Mechanical & microstructural characterization of test coupons for Alloy 718 & Alloy 800
  • ODS steel mechanical blending & trial runs
metallurgy of am technologies
Metallurgy of AM Technologies
  • Weldable alloys are readily manufactured via AM
    • Titanium alloys, stainless steels, alloy/tool steels, nickel-based alloys (Inconel), cobalt-based alloys
  • Enables unique control of microstructure
    • Very fine grain sizes due to high solidification rates
    • Can produce microstructures not possible using conventional manufacturing methods
  • Equivalent or superior mechanical properties to wrought alloys
material down selection for dm demonstration1
Material Down Selection for DM Demonstration
  • Mix of nano- and micron- sized oxide particles selected for mixing with 316SS
  • Emerging literature in Austenitic ODS alloys
  • Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications (http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/09/f2/Stubbins_Austenitic%20ODS%20NEUP.pdf)
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Austenitic ODS alloys (http://www.mme.iitm.ac.in/murty/?q=node/96)
literature notes for austenitic ods steel composition
Literature Notes for Austenitic ODS Steel Composition
  • (http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/09/f2/Stubbins_Austenitic%20ODS%20NEUP.pdf)
slide20
Several Inconel 600 samples were metallographically cross-sectioned and polished
  • Examination of microstructure on sample 600-195-1400 was conducted using backscattered electron imaging (BSE)
    • Sample was not yet etched
    • BSE images were taken in the three locations shown below

Optical Image of Polished Cross-Section

Sample 600-195-1400

Top

Mid

Bot

~ 1cm

Mt 14.046