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NUCLEAR POWER:. SECURE ENERGY for the 21 st CENTURY Mike Corradini Nuclear Engineering & Engineering Physics. Nuclear Power:Villain or Victim; M.Carbon, Pebble Beach Publishers (2002) Decision-Makers’ Forum: A Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy (2004).

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nuclear power

NUCLEAR POWER:

SECURE ENERGY

for the

21st CENTURY

Mike Corradini

Nuclear Engineering & Engineering Physics

Nuclear Power:Villain or Victim; M.Carbon, Pebble Beach Publishers (2002)

Decision-Makers’ Forum: A Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy (2004)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

need for a unified energy strategy
Need for a Unified Energy Strategy

Internationally:

  • Population continues to increase worldwide
  • Energy usage growing at similar rates (1-2%/yr*)
  • Electrical energy usage increasing faster (>3%/yr*)

Nationally:

  • Abundant & secure energy is critical to our future
  • Continued & growing concern of fossil fuel emission
  • Alternative energy technologies must be considered

Need to ensure energy security with bipartisan

initiatives and executive priority for nuclear energy

*EIA (2002)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

sustainability issues
SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES

Conditions for Sustainability:

  • Acceptable area usage
  • Minimal by-product streams
  • Economically feasible technology
  • Large supply of the energy resource
  • Neither the power source itself nor the technology to exploit it can be controlled by a few nations/regions (people/countries/regions)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

slide4

Power Plant Land Use Required (km2 / MW)

Source: J. Davidson (2000)

Nuclear

0.001/0.01

Coal

0.01/0.04

1000 MW POWER PLANTS RUNNING AT 100 % CAPACITY

(8766 GWh/year)

Biomass

5.2

Geothermal

0.003

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

1000 mwe yr power plant emission
1000 MWe-yr Power Plant Emission*

CoalGasNuclear

Sulfur-oxide ~ 1000 mt

Nitrous-oxide ~ 5000 mt 400 mt

Particulates ~ 1400 mt

Trace elements ~ 50 mt** <1 mt

Ash ~ 1million mt

CO2 > 7million mt 3.5mill. mt

** TRACE: e.g., Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic

Spent Fuel 20-30 mt

Fission Products ~1-2 mt

*Source: EIA (2002)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

slide6

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

Construction/Operation/Fuel Preparation

(kg CO

/ kWh)

* Source: J. Davidson (2000)

2

1.4

/kWh)

1.2

1.04

2

Natural Gas

1

0.8

0.79

Emissions (kg CO

0.58

0.6

Geothermal

Solar-PV

Coal

Nuclear

0.47

0.4

Wind

0.38

Hydro

2

CO

0.2

0.1

0.06

0.025

0.004

0.022

0.025

0

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

slide7

Cost of Electricity

(Global Average) (¢/kWh)

* Source: J. Davidson (2000)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

slide8

Top 10 Nuclear Countries (1999)

  • U.S. nuclear electricity generation is:
  • as large as France and Japan (#2 and #3) combined; and
  • larger than the other 7 nations in the top 10 combined

billion kilowatt-hours

Source: IAEA

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

record u s nuclear electricity production
Record U.S.Nuclear Electricity Production

(Billions of Kilowatt-hours)

Source: EIA

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

industry capacity factor continues at record level
Industry Capacity FactorContinues at Record Level

86.8% in 1999

89.6% in 2000

90.7% in 2001

91.7% in 2002

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

license renewal extends value

2003

Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2Browns Ferry 2,3

Farley 1,2

Dresden 2,3

Quad Cities 1,2

Cook 1,2

Nine Mile Point 1 ,2

2004

Brunswick 1, 2

Beaver Valley 1,2

Pilgrim

Davis-Besse

Millstone 2,3

2005

Susquehanna 1,2

License Renewal:Extends Value

Already filed

North Anna 1,2

Surry 1,2

Catawba 1,2

McGuire 1,2

Peach Bottom 2,3

St. Lucie 1,2

Fort Calhoun

Robinson 2

Summer

Ginna

Approved

Calvert Cliffs 1,2

Oconee 1,2,3

Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1

Hatch 1,2

Turkey Point 3,4

slide12

Safety of Current Nuclear Plants

  • There has not been a loss of life in the US due to commercial nuclear plants (TMI released a small amount of radiation)
  • Chernobyl accident - a terrible accident with a bad design
    • These plants are now closed or redesigned for operation
    • Russian nuclear plant operations are being assisted by IAEA
  • Regional deregulation of the electricity industry introduces challenges to continue & enhance the safety of nuclear plants.
  • - Upgrades of power plant equipment and reliable replacement schedule
  • - Risk-informed decision making by the industry should be cost-effective

US nuclear plants are now self-insured via Price-Anderson Act

and we should renew Price-Anderson legislation for long-term

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

nuclear power high level waste hlw
Nuclear Power High Level Waste (HLW)
  • All nuclear fuel cycle waste (except HLW) has been safely and reliably disposed through DoE and NRC regulations; milling, enrichment, fabrication by-products as LLW
  • Since 1982, US law ‘defines’ spent nuclear fuel as a HLW, since reprocessing has not occurred since 1976 (Japan & Europe currently reprocess spent nuclear fuel for recycle)
  • Spent fuel is currently stored at ~105 nuclear power plant sites (~ 2000 mt/yr; total ~50,000 mt) & is planned to be stored/buried at one site in the US (Yucca Mtn)
  • All nuclear electricity is taxed at 1mill/kwhre for a HLW fund (~$0.8 billion/yr; total fund ~ $20 billion)

Reassert criteria, achieve licensing & begin operation of Yucca

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

evolution of nuclear power systems

Generation I

Early Prototype

Reactors

Generation II

Commercial Power

Reactors

Generation III

AdvancedLWRs

Generation IV

  • Shippingport
  • Dresden,Fermi-I
  • Magnox
  • LWR: PWR/BWR
  • CANDU
  • VVER/RBMK
  • System 80+
  • EPR
  • AP1000
  • ABWR

Gen IV

Gen I

Gen II

Gen III

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

Evolution of Nuclear Power Systems
  • Enhanced Safety
  • Improved Economics
  • Minimized Wastes
  • Proliferation Resistance

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

nuclear energy defense in depth
Nuclear Energy: Defense-in-Depth
  • Reliable Operation
  • Safety is foremost
  • ‘Doing it right’
  • Credible Regulation
  • Risk-based stds.
  • Public access
  • Improving Engr.
  • System Designs
  • Instrumentation
  • Materials

- New plants (GenIII) require predictable plant licensing processes

- Enhance and reestablish a vibrant human infrastructure

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

nuclear safety enhanced
Nuclear Safety Enhanced
  • Current nuclear power plants have high levels of safety: i.e., reliable operation, low occupational radioactivity dose to workers and with minimal risk and health effects from severe accidents.
  • Future nuclear reactor systems will meet and exceed safety performance of current reactors.
  • Decay heat removal, minimize transients and allow time for operator actions are the keys to successful safety performance.
  • Advanced LWR’s will be simplified, thus more economic and continue to minimize emissions

Deploy advanced light-water reactor systems (GenIII)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

advanced lwr ap 1000

Advanced LWR: AP-1000

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

advanced lwr esbwr
Advanced LWR: ESBWR

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

generation iv reactor systems
Generation IV Reactor Systems
  • Safety: must meet and exceed current nuclear power plant reliability, occupational radiation exposure and risk of accident consequences
  • Sustainability: minimize waste streams during spent fuel disposal or reprocessing and recycle
  • Proliferation and Physical Protection of facilities
  • Economics: continue to reduce the total cost of electricity ($/Mwhr-e) to remain competitive with leading technologies (e.g., gas, coal and wind)

Develop and demo advanced reactors & fuel cycles (GenerationIV)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

very high temperature reactor vhtr
Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR)
  • Characteristics
    • High temperature coolant
    • 900 - 1000°C outlet temp.
    • 600 MWth
    • Water-cracking cycle
  • Key Benefit
    • High thermal efficiency
    • Hydrogen production by water-cracking by High-Temp Electrolysis or Thermo-chemical decomposition

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

process heat for hydrogen production
Process Heat for Hydrogen Production

200 C

1000 C

Aqueous-phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR)

Thermochemical Processes

Hydrogen

Carbon

Recycle

H2, CO2

CATALYST

AQUEOUS CARBOHYDRATE

CxHy

LM Condensed Phase Reforming (pyrolysis)

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

hi temp electrolysis process
Hi-Temp. Electrolysis Process

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

gas cooled reactor
GAS-COOLED REACTOR

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

nuclear power fuel cycle 1000 mwe yr a once thru b u pu recycle iaea 1997
Nuclear Power Fuel Cycle[1000 MWe-yr – (A) Once Thru (B) U-Pu recycle] IAEA-1997

U3O8 &daughters

(A)10 mt (B) 6mt

Mining/Milling

Milling waste stream

(A) 205mt (B)120mt

UF6 &daughters

(A) 167mt(B) 0.5mt

Convert/Enrichment

Conv/Enrich Waste Tails

(A) 37mt (B)11.5mt

UO2 & daughters

(A) 0.2mt (B) 0.16mt

Fuel Fabrication

Fuel Fabrication Waste

(A) 36.8mt (B) 36.4mt (U-Pu)

Reactor (1000MWe)

Spent Fuel as Waste

(A) 35.7 mt U, 0.32mt Pu

(B) 36mt U, 0.5mt Pu

Reprocessing Plant

Reprocessing Waste (FP)

(B) 1.1 mt U, 5kg Pu

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

liquid metal cooled fast reactor lfr
Liquid-Metal Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)
  • Characteristics
    • Na, Pb or Pb/Bi coolant
    • 550°C to 800°C outlet temperature
    • 120–400 MWe
  • Key Benefit
    • Waste minimization and efficient use of uranium resources

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future

to advance the use of nuclear energy

To Advance the Use of Nuclear Energy:

Ensure energy security with bipartisan initiatives and an

executive branch priority on nuclear energy

Enact long-term Price-Anderson legislation

Demonstrate predictable nuclear plant licensing processes

Reassert criteria, achieve licensing & begin operation of

Yucca Mountain Repository

Deploy current light-water reactors in the U.S. (Gen-III)

Develop/demonstrate advanced reactors & fuel cycles (GenIV)

Reestablish a vibrant educational infrastructure

=>Build public confidence and support for nuclear energy

Non-CO2-emitting Energy Sources for the Future