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Temperature and Kinetic Theory. Chapter 13. Atoms and Molecules. A tomic theory says that matter is made of atoms; Greek for indivisible To discuss the relative mass of atoms and molecules we need a unit This unit is called unified atomic mass units (u) or atomic mass unit ( amu )

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Temperature and Kinetic Theory

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atoms and molecules
Atoms and Molecules
  • Atomic theory says that matter is made of atoms; Greek for indivisible
  • To discuss the relative mass of atoms and molecules we need a unit
  • This unit is called unified atomic mass units (u) or atomic mass unit (amu)
  • Based on carbon-12
atomic theory of matter
Atomic Theory of Matter
  • On a microscopic scale, the arrangements of molecules in solids (a), liquids (b), and gases (c) are quite different.
kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic-molecular theory
  • Explains the properties of an ideal gas
    • Says that particles in a gas are in random motion at high speeds
    • Gas particles undergo perfectly elastic collisions
    • Gas particles hit each other and/or container and rebound, resulting in pressure on the surface
    • Theory explains the properties of an ideal gas, which is an accurate model of real gases under most conditions
  • Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is.
  • The average translational kinetic energy of the molecules in an ideal gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas.
  • Most materials expand when heated.
thermal equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics
Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
  • Two objects placed in thermal contact will eventually come to the same temperature. When they do, we say they are in thermal equilibrium.
  • The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that if two objects are each in equilibrium with a third object, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
  • In everyday life temperature might be measured in Fahrenheit or Celsius
  • To convert between F and C
    • ْF= 9/5 ْC + 32
  • The SI unit of temperature is kelvin (K)
  • To convert between K and C
    • K=ْC+ 273.15
the gas laws
The Gas Laws
  • Boyle’s Law - for a fixed sample of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely w/ the pressure.



Charles’s Law – under constant pressure, the volume of a sample of gas varies directly with its Kelvin temperature

  • Guy-Lussac’s Law-at constant volume the absolute pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
we can combine these
We can combine these…
  • Combined Gas Law – for a fixed amount of an ideal gas, the pressure times the volume divided by the Kelvin temperature equals a constant
  • A mole (mol) is defined as the number of grams of a substance that is numerically equal to the molecular mass of the substance:
  • 1 mol H2 has a mass of 2 g
  • 1 mol Ne has a mass of 20 g
  • 1 mol CO2 has a mass of 44 g
  • The number of moles in a certain mass of material:
molecules avogadro s number
Molecules & Avogadro’s Number
  • The number of molecules in one mole is the same for all gases.
  • That number is Avogadro’s number
the ideal gas law
The Ideal Gas Law
  • Where n is the number of moles
  • Ris the universal gas constanthas a value of 8.314 J/mol·K.
  • In the real world, this ideal gas law predicts gas behavior well, except under conditions of high pressure or low temperature
real gases and changes of phase
Real gases and Changes of Phase


  • Aphase (PT) diagram shows all three phases of matter
  • Solid-liquid transition is melting or freezing
  • Liquid-vapor transition is boiling or condensing
  • Solid-vapor transition is sublimation
phase diagram of carbon dioxide
Phase diagram of carbon dioxide
  • The triple point is the only point where all three phases can coexist in equilibrium.
  • Even without stirring, a few drops of dye in water will gradually spread throughout. This process is called diffusion.


  • Diffusion occurs from a region of high concentration towards a region of lower concentration
  • Zitewitz. Physics: Principles and Problems. 2004
  • Giancoli, Douglas. Physics: Principles with Applications 6th Edition. 2009.
  • Images
    • http://missbakersbiologyclasswiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/diffusion.gif/31772061/diffusion.gif