hydrologic watershed modeling
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Hydrologic/Watershed Modeling. Glenn Tootle, P.E. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas [email protected] , Ph.D. Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering University of Wyoming [email protected] Questions?.

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hydrologic watershed modeling

Hydrologic/Watershed Modeling

Glenn Tootle, P.E.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

[email protected]

, Ph.D.

Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

University of Wyoming

[email protected]

questions
Questions?
  • Who has used / developed a hydrologic model?
  • What model(s) did you use?
  • Examples
conceptual model of watershed modeling
Conceptual Model of Watershed Modeling
  • Typical Input
  • Topography
  • Soil Characteristics
  • Land cover
  • Land use
  • Meteorological data
  • Typical Output
  • Streamflow
  • Subsurface Flow
  • Depth to water table
steps to hydrologic modeling
Steps to Hydrologic Modeling
  • Delineate watershed
  • Obtain hydrologic and geographic data
  • Select modeling approach
  • Calibrate/Verify model
  • Use model for assessment/prediction/design
what is a watershed
What is a Watershed?
  • Area that topographically contributes to the drainage to a point of interest

Natural Watershed

  • Points of Interest
  • Road crossing
  • Stream gage
  • Reservoir inlet
  • Wastewater treatment plant
  • Location of stream restoration
digital elevation model dem
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
  • Digital file that stores the elevation of the land surface a specified grid cell size (e.g., 30 meters)
geographic data
Geographic Data
  • Land use
  • Land cover
geographic data1
Geographic Data
  • Soil type/classification
hydrologic data
Hydrologic Data
  • Meteorological Data
    • Temperature
    • Precipitation
    • Wind speed
    • Humidity
  • Extrapolation of point measurements
    • Theissen Polygons
    • Inverse distance weighting
hydrologic data1
Hydrologic Data

Streamflow

  • Hydrologic Data
    • Streamflow
      • Peak discharge
      • Daily flow volume
      • Annual flow volume
    • Soil moisture
    • Groundwater level
basis for many hydrologic models
Basis for Many Hydrologic Models
  • Hydrologic Budget (In – Out = ΔStorage)

Transpiration (T)

Streamflow (Q)

Evaporation (E)

Groundwater out (GWout)

Reservoir

Precipitation (P)

Groundwater in (GWin)

Infiltration (I)

Watershed

(P + GWin) – (E + T + I + GWout + Q) = ΔStoragereservoir

which model should be used
Which Model Should be Used?
  • It Depends on:
    • What time scale are you working at?
    • What hydrologic quantity are you trying to obtain?
    • What data do you have for your watershed?
    • How fast of a computer do you have?
spatial scaling of models
Spatial Scaling of Models

Semi-Distributed

Parameters assigned to each grid cell, but cells with same parameters are grouped

Fully-Distributed

Parameters assigned to each grid cell

Lumped

Parameters assigned to each subbasin

A3

A1

A2

stanford watershed model hspf
Stanford Watershed Model(HSPF)
  • Physically-based and continuous simulation
variable infiltration capacity vic 3l
Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-3L)
  • Continuous simulation and physically-based
  • Macroscale hydrologic model that solves full water and energy balances
calibrating a model
Calibrating a Model
  • Typically the model is calibrated against observed streamflow data
  • Depending on the model complexity, parameters are adjusted until observed streamflow equals model streamflow
  • Which observed value to use:
    • Qpeak
    • Qvolume
    • tpeak

Qpeak

Q

  • tpeak
  • Qvolume

t

sensitive parameters
Sensitive Parameters
  • Precipitation
  • Soil parameters
    • Hydraulic conductivity
    • Soil water holding capacity
  • Evaporation (for continuous simulation)
  • Flow routing parameters (for event-based)
uncertainties
Uncertainties
  • Precipitation
    • Extrapolation of point to other areas
    • Temporal resolution of data
  • Soils information
    • Surveys are based on site visits and then extrapolated
  • Routing parameters
    • Usually assigned based on empirical studies
use of models
Use of Models
  • Assessment
    • What happens if land use/land cover is changed?
  • Prediction
    • Flood forecasting
  • Design
    • How much flow will occur in a 100 year storm?
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