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Water Cycle

Water Cycle

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Water Cycle

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  1. Water Cycle And its different processes Collins

  2. What is a Water Cycle? • Also known as hydrologic cycle, water cycle describes the continuous circulation and flow of water on, above and below the surface of earth.

  3. Importance of Water Cycle • The water cycle is generated from solar energy. 86% of the global evaporation are from oceans. Oceans reduce their temperature by evaporative cooling. Without the cooling, we might have a warmer planet.

  4. Different Processes • There are different processes to make water continue its cycle. In order, These are: • Precipitation • Runoff • Infiltration • Subsurface Flow • Evaporation • Condensation • Transpiration

  5. Water Cycle Processes • Precipitation Precipitation happens when water vapor is pulled down by gravity and deposited on the Earth’s Land. Main forms of precipitation are rain, snow, ice pellets and snow pellets (soft hail).

  6. Water Cycle Processes • Runoff and Infiltration Runoff is the water flow that occurs where water moves across the land then seeps into other bodies of water or drained in a watershed. Runoff can be generated by rainfall or melting of snow/ice. The watershed acts as a tunnel by collecting all the water within the area below the watershed then channeling it into a body of water. Infiltration is the process were the water enters the soil. Infiltration happens because of gravity and capillary action.

  7. Water Cycle Processes • Subsurface Flow Process were the infiltrated water are channeled and seeped to different bodies of water like oceans, springs, rivers or being pumped out of the land surface. Surface Runoff - rain, snow melt, or other water that flows in surface streams, rivers, or canals. Percolation-is the movement of water through the soil

  8. Water Cycle Processes • Evaporation Evaporation is a phase transition or the change of state of water or any forms of liquid to water/liquid vapor (liquid to gas). It occurs when heat is sufficient (for example, one major factor for evaporation to happen is the sun). Another example of vaporization is boiling.

  9. Water Cycle Processes • Condensation Another type of phase transition, only that it’s now water vapor changes into liquid droplets. It happens when a water vapor cools or compresses. Condensation also creates clouds and fogs.

  10. Water Cycle Processes • Transpiration A process parallel or similar to evaporation. It is the loss of water vapor from plants and trees, particularly perspiration of plants. Transpiration cools and regulates the plant’s temperature. Transpiration is a major factor in the environment.

  11. Accumulation • the process in which water pools in large bodies (like oceans, seas and lakes).

  12. Big Question: Is there such thing as water loss? • There is no water loss without losing Hydrogen first. Although the balance of water on Earth remains constant, the water molecules do not. Over time, Earth loses gases like Hydrogen which can accelerate Hydrogen loss, and by association is water loss, from Earth’s atmosphere. If Earth will have a hot lower atmosphere, it could result in a humid upper atmosphere that accelerates the loss of hydrogen.

  13. Humidity • Refers to the amount of water vapor in the air • We use a hygrometer to measure humidity. • Relative Humidity-% of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold • Relative Humidity is measured using a Psychrometer.

  14. How do clouds form? • Clouds of all kinds form when water vapor in the air becomes liquid water or ice crystals. • We know that cold air can hold less water vapor than can warm air. • Warm air must rise first, cool, and condensation occurs creating clouds. • Condensation nuclei—small particles around which cloud droplets can form • Lifting Condensation Level—the height at which condensation occurs (this height often relates to the base of clouds)

  15. Dew Point • THERE IS A HUGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DEW POINT! Relative Humidity is a comparison and dew point is a temperature. Dew Point-temperature at which condensation occurs If Dew Point is below freezing, clouds can be made of ice crystals instead of rain droplets.

  16. Types of clouds • Meteorologists classify clouds into three main categories. • Cumulus • Stratus • Cirrus

  17. Cirrus Clouds • High clouds • Thin, wispy, made of ice crystals

  18. Stratus Form in the middle layers Appear to blanket the sky Very thick usually—the sky is not typically visible Can produce rain or snow Made of ice and water droplets

  19. Cumulus clouds • Usually a sign of fair weather • Big and puffy clouds • Made of water droplets

  20. Clouds of Vertical Development • Cumulonimbus--Towering clouds with flat tops • “Anvilheads” • These clouds often produce thunderstorms. • These thunderstorm clouds are also the same clouds that produce hail.

  21. Types of Precipitation • Dew-water that condenses from the air onto a cold surface • Frost-ice that has been deposited directly from the air onto a cold surface • Most droplets will form through a process called coalescence. • Coalescence—when cloud droplets collide to form a larger droplet

  22. Rain vs. snow • Rain—most common form of precipitation • Snow-water vapor in a cloud is converted directly into ice crystals • Sleet-snow that partially melts as it falls • Hail-starts as an ice pellet, it gowns thrown around in the cumulonimbus cloud and each time it is thrown it gains another layer and eventually they fall to the ground. • Hailstones can have devestating effects such as: damage to cars, crops, and buildings

  23. Measuring Precipitation • We use a rain gauge to measure precipitation. • It is an open ended can or tube that collects rainfall.

  24. Air Mass • Large body of air that takes on characteristics of the area over which it forms • Air Masses form over land or water. • They have less exposure to large amounts of moisture so they are drier than those that form over water.

  25. Classifying air masses • Air Masses are classified according to their source regions or the regions in which they develop. • Air masses are classified based upon: • Temperature • Humidity

  26. Tropical vs. Polar • Tropical-warm air masses that form in the tropics and have low pressure • Polar-cold air masses that form in polar regions and have high pressure

  27. Maritime vs. Continental • Maritime-air masses that form over oceans • Continental-air masses that form over land

  28. Air Masses • Maritime Polar—bring cool, humid air to the west coast • Continental Polar-air masses from central and northern Canada bring cold air to the central and U.S.

  29. Continental Tropical—bring hot, dry air from the Southwest • Maritime Tropical-come from the Gulf of Mexico and bring warm, humid air to the eastern United States.

  30. Water Cycle And its different processes Collins

  31. What is a Water Cycle? • Also known as hydrologic cycle, water cycle describes the _________________ circulation and flow of water on, above and below the surface of earth.

  32. Importance of Water Cycle • The water cycle is generated from solar energy. _______ of the global evaporation are from oceans. Oceans reduce their temperature by ___________________________________. Without the cooling, we might have a warmer planet.

  33. Different Processes • There are different processes to make water continue its cycle. In order, These are: • Precipitation • Runoff • Infiltration • Subsurface Flow • Evaporation • Condensation • Transpiration

  34. Water Cycle Processes • Precipitation __________________________ happens when water vapor is pulled down by gravity and deposited on the Earth’s Land. Main forms of precipitation are rain, snow, ice pellets and snow pellets (soft hail).

  35. Water Cycle Processes • Runoff and Infiltration ______________________ is the water flow that occurs where water moves across the land then seeps into other bodies of water or drained in a watershed. Runoff can be generated by rainfall or melting of snow/ice. The ____________________ acts as a tunnel by collecting all the water within the area below the watershed then channeling it into a body of water. _________________________ is the process were the water enters the soil. Infiltration happens because of gravity and capillary action.

  36. Water Cycle Processes • ____________________________ Process were the infiltrated water are channeled and seeped to different bodies of water like oceans, springs, rivers or being pumped out of the land surface. ____________________________- rain, snow melt, or other water that flows in surface streams, rivers, or canals. ___________________________-is the movement of water through the soil

  37. Water Cycle Processes • Evaporation ______________________ is a phase transition or the change of state of water or any forms of liquid to water/liquid vapor (liquid to gas). It occurs when heat is sufficient (for example, one major factor for evaporation to happen is the sun). Another example of vaporization is boiling.

  38. Water Cycle Processes • Condensation Another type of phase transition, only that it’s now water vapor changes into ___________ droplets. It happens when a water vapor cools or compresses. _____________________ also creates clouds and fogs.

  39. Water Cycle Processes • Transpiration A process parallel or similar to evaporation. It is the loss of ______________from plants and trees, particularly perspiration of plants. Transpiration cools and regulates the plant’s ___________________. Transpiration is a major factor in the environment.

  40. ____________________ • the process in which water pools in large bodies (like oceans, seas and lakes).

  41. Big Question: Is there such thing as water loss? • There is ______ water loss without losing _________________ first. Although the balance of water on Earth remains constant, the water molecules do not. Over time, Earth loses gases like Hydrogen which can accelerate Hydrogen loss, and by association is water loss, from Earth’s atmosphere. If Earth will have a hot lower atmosphere, it could result in a humid upper atmosphere that accelerates the loss of hydrogen.

  42. Humidity • Refers to the amount of _________________ in the air • We use a ___________________ to measure humidity. • ______________________-% of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold • Relative Humidity is measured using a ___________________________.

  43. How do clouds form? • Clouds of all kinds form when water vapor in the air becomes liquid water or ice crystals. • We know that cold air can hold less water vapor than can warm air. • _________ air must rise first, cool, and condensation occurs creating clouds. • __________________________—small particles around which cloud droplets can form • ___________________________________—the height at which condensation occurs (this height often relates to the base of clouds)

  44. Dew Point • THERE IS A HUGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DEW POINT! Relative Humidity is a ___________________ and dew point is a temperature. ____________________-temperature at which condensation occurs If Dew Point is below freezing, clouds can be made of ice crystals instead of rain droplets.

  45. Types of clouds • Meteorologists classify clouds into three main categories. • Cumulus • Stratus • Cirrus

  46. Cirrus Clouds • High clouds • Thin, _____________, made of ice crystals

  47. Stratus Form in the _________________ layers Appear to blanket the sky Very thick usually—the sky is not typically visible Can produce rain or snow Made of __________________