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Chapter 8 Anglo American Colonization of Texas. Essential Questions Could the British have done anything differently to keep from losing their American colonies? What was the legacy of the American Revolution? +

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Chapter 8 Anglo American Colonization of Texas


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  1. Chapter 8Anglo American Colonization of Texas Essential Questions Could the British have done anything differently to keep from losing their American colonies? What was the legacy of the American Revolution? + Were the motives of Anglo settlement consistent with the goals Spain and later Mexico had for their colony? -

  2. Section 1Interest In Texas Grows Among Anglo Americans Although conflict existed between Spain and the United States, many Americans moved west into Spanish Texas. The actions of these filibusters served as an example to later colonists.

  3. Section 1 Vocabulary • Anglo American: people whose ancestors moved to US from European countries • Immigrant: person who settles in a new country • Empresario: a person who makes arrangement to bring settlers to a colony • Recruit: to persuade someone to join a group • Filibuster: person who engages in a private rebellious activity in a foreign country

  4. Vocab, con’t • Compromise: mutual agreement in which each side gives up something in order to reach a settlement • Neutral: not belonging to one side or another • Republic: nation or state in which people elect representatives to govern them • Tejano: person from Mexican descent who lives in Texas • Cede: to surrender by treaty or agreement

  5. Americans Move West • After American Revolution, many Anglo Americans (most were from England) wanted a new life…many wanted to move west even though Spain controlled much of the west • Spain didn’t want US to claim any land west of Mississippi River • Many settlers from US had already moved to Spanish owned lands • Spain got scared because so many Americans were moving into Spanish land • Didn’t want Americans to outnumber the Spanish

  6. Spain Controls Immigration • Spain wanted to control number of immigrants by allowing Anglo Americans settle in Missouri if: • They pledged their loyalty to Spain • They became Catholic • Reasons for doing this: • Populate area to extend Spanish rule • Hoped new settlers (who agreed to conditions above) would keep other Anglo Americans from coming into territory illegally

  7. Spain Controls Immigration, con’t • 1st Empresario to recruit settlers from US to Texas: George Morgan • He got people to come and promised Spain he would be responsible for them • Founded the town of New Madrid on Mississippi River (what is now Missouri) • His example as an Empresario set example for Empresarios who would come later

  8. Philip Nolan in Texas • Some Texas settlers did not like the Spanish requirements (allegiance to Spain; become Catholics) • Group of Texas settlers were filibusters…Spain was threatened by them • First filibuster to come to Texas: Philip Nolan • Led men into Texas to capture wild horses…sold them for profit in US • At first, he had permission from Spain to do this but later was accused of trying to take Texas from Spain • Was warned not to come back into Texas or would be arrested

  9. Philip Nolan, con’t • Nolan came back to Texas anyway with group of men • Had battle with Spanish soldiers near Waco • Nolan was killed…men were taken as to Mexican prison • Peter Ellis Bean…(one of Nolan’s men) later became Mexican army officer

  10. Neutral Ground Agreement • Background • Spain lost control of northern territory (Louisiana area) in 1800 when France reclaimed land • US bought the land from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase (1803) • Now US and Spain shared border between Louisiana and Spanish Texas • Both countries tried to decide where border should be (normally the Sabine River)

  11. Neutral Ground Agreement, con’t • So, US commander (Wilkinson) and Spanish commander Herrera reached a compromise • Decided on a neutral zone (see map on next slide) • Both countries agreed not to control the neutral area or patrol it with troops

  12. The Neutral Ground Map

  13. Neutral Ground Agreement, con’t • Neutral Ground Agreement stopped border conflict but served as a shelter for criminals….Spain agreed to let US go into neutral area and arrest lawbreakers • Lieutenant Augusta Magee led US patrol and kept control of area

  14. Gutierrez-Magee Expedition • Augustus Magee resigned from US Army • He met Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara…helped to free Texas from Span • Magee and Gutierrez became filibusters and started the Republic of the North (Republican Army of the North)…wanted to free Texas • Their army was made up of Tejanos, Native Texans, Anglo Americans, and volunteers http://www.texasvis.com/Images/Video%20Images/filabusters1/fewb&wguysonhorse.jpg

  15. Gutierrez-Magee Expedition, con’t • They arrived in Nacogdoches in 1812…proclaimed Texas free from Spain • Moved on to Goliad (La Bahia) to free it but Magee was killed • Other men joined in and went to other places to free Texas • They were defeated by Spanish General Joaquin de Arredondo in 1813 • Battle was near Medina River (15 miles from San Antonio) Battle of Medina

  16. Gutierrez-Magee Expedition, con’t Result Even though they were finally defeated at Battle of Medina, it encouraged others to try to free Texas and Mexico from Spain http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qyg01 http://www.tshaonline.org/day-by-day/30779

  17. Revolutionaries and Pirates in Texas • After Gutierrez-Magee expedition, many people moved to Texas who also wanted to free Texas from Spain…even revolutionaries and pirates! • Francisco Xavier Mina and Henry Perry organized group on Galveston Island • French Pirate Louis Michel Aury helped them • Wanted to attack Spanish ships—had unsuccessful attempt in 1817

  18. Revolutionaries and Pirates, con’t • Then pirate Jean Lafitte came to Galveston • http://www.ghosttoursofgalvestonisland.com/JeanLafitte.htm • He founded Campeche, TX • He said he was trying to free Texas and Mexico but he was really interested in taking Spanish treasure • The US Navy forced Jean Lafitte out of Galveston when he started raiding US ships Jean Lafitte http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Lafitte

  19. The Adams-Onis Treaty • Background: 1817, US General Andrew Jackson chased some Indians into Spanish Florida…this made Spain mad • So, they made a treaty called the Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) • http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/adamonis.htm • http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/nba01 • http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/history/timeline/2.html

  20. The Adams-Onis Treaty, con’t • Terms of Treaty • Spain ceded Florida to US and agreed that Sabine River would be boundary between Spanish Texas and Louisiana and Red River as northern boundary • US agreed to not let people stake land claims west of Sabine River…this made Americans mad because they wanted to go west • many people ignored treaty and took land in Texas away from Spain

  21. The Adams-Onis Treaty http://mrcapwebpage.com/VCSUSHISTORY/adamsonistreaty.gif

  22. The Long Expedition • June, 1819: a Doctor James Long led a group of people from Natches, Mississippi to Nacogdoches…he then declared Texas independent from Spain • Long wanted Jean Lafitte to help the Texans fight help to free Galveston but Lafitte refused • So Long went back to Natches, MS and get more men for a mission to La Bahia (Goliad)

  23. The Long Expedition, con’t • But, Spanish troops forced Long and his 2nd group of men to surrender • Long was sent to Mexico City and was shot by a prison guard • He was the last major filibuster in Texas Dr. James Long http://www.wtblock.com/wtblockjr/History%20of%20Jefferson%20County/Images/James%20M%20Long.jpg

  24. The Long Expedition Links • https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/treasures/republic/long-01.html • http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qyl01 • http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/adp/history/republic/flags/long.html

  25. The Long Expedition, con’t • When Long’s wife, Jane (who was living along the coast at Bolivar…on coast), heard that her husband was captured and killed, she went back to MS • She later returned to Texas, though, and settled in Richmond (by present day Houston) • She managed a hotel and a plantation • She is known as the “Mother of Texas” because of her pioneer spirit and willingness to move back to Texas even though her husband had been killed

  26. http://www.dallashistory.org/images/Jane_Long.jpg http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/images/longjane.jpg Jane Long the “Mother of Texas” http://www.lsjunction.com/people/long.htm http://www.utexas.edu/gtw/long.php http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/flo11

  27. To Wrap It Up… • Filibusters failed to make Texas free from Spain • But, their activities encouraged people to move to Texas • Because so many people started moving into Texas, Spain really started losing control of Texas

  28. Section 2Stephen F. Austin and the Empresarios Anglo American colonization of Texas began when Stephen F. Austin was given permission to establish a colony of 300 American families on Texas soil. Soon other colonists followed Austin’s lead and the population of Texas grew rapidly

  29. Vocabulary • Petition: a formal written request • Land Title: proof of ownership

  30. Moses Austin Begins Colonization in Texas • Background: • Moses Austin born in 1761 in Connecticut • Went to Missouri to operate a lead min • Eventually lost all his money • Decided to become an empresario to pay of debts…to take people to Texas • Went to Texas in 1820 with idea of taking 300 families to start a colony

  31. Moses Austin, con’t • Because no empresario had brought that many people to Texas before, Spain became suspicious of him • But, his plans were not to overthrow Spanish government • So, he went to San Antonio to get approval for his plan

  32. Moses Austin, con’t • He presented his petition to Governor Antonio Martinez • Martinez rejected Austin’s plan…disappointed, he decided to just leave Texas • But, before he left San Antonio, he met Baron de Bastrop, Felipe Enrique Neri who agreed to help convince Martinez to approve Austin’s plan

  33. Moses Austin, con’t • Austin was expecting to get approval so he went back to Connecticut to recruit colonists to go to Texas • But, he got sick and died in 1821 before he could get back to Texas • Right before he died, he asked his son, Stephen F. Austin to take the colonists to Texas

  34. http://www.dallashistory.org/history/texas/colonization.htm http://www.cah.utexas.edu/texashistory/annex/anglo/index.php Moses Austin http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fau12

  35. Stephen F. Austin Takes Over • Background • Born in Virginia • Was an attorney and had served in politics • Was 27 years old when he took over for his father • Read page 179 • Approval for Texas • Went to San Antonio and met with Governor Martinez and Erasmo Seguin • Seguin—respected citizen of San Antonio; was appointed to help Stephen F. Austin; was a rancher and politician • August, 1821: Stephen F. Austin’s petition to bring people to Texas was approved

  36. Stephen F. Austin, con’t • What to do next… • Choose site for colony…between Brazos and Colorado Rivers • Austin chose land along the lower Colorado River • Good weather, easy to grow crops, plenty of water, etc

  37. Settlers Arrive in Texas • Once he decided on location, Austin went to New Orleans to recruit colonists • He was looking for people of good character, people who were Catholic or who would agree to become Catholic, people who would be willing to work hard, and people who would pledge loyalty to Spain

  38. Settlers Arrive, con’t • Old 300 • Name for the 300 families who came to Texas with Stephen F. Austin • Farmers would receive one labor (177 acres) of land • Ranchers (raise cattle) would receive a sitio (square of land of 4428 acres) • Many settlers got both • Every family was given a land title (proof of land ownership)

  39. Settlers Arrive, con’t • 1821: Settlers began to arrive • Some traveled along El Camino Real; some came by boat named Lively • Some mix-up, though, with boat and some settlers went back to New Orleans

  40. Austin’s Leadership • Even though the colonists faced difficulties (drought, Indian attacks, etc) and returned home, overall the colony prospered • Why did they prosper? Austin’s great leadership • Problem Austin faced: August, 1821…Texas was now part of Mexico when Mexico became free from Spain • Had to get permission now from Mexico to make sure colony was legal…took a year

  41. Austin’s Leadership, con’t • When he was in Mexico, Austin learned to speak Spanish…gained respect from Mexican officials • Austin was awarded more land grants • Austin helped pass law that allowed colonists to be free from taxes • Helped pass homestead law…settler’s land and tools could not be taken away to pay a debt

  42. Austin’s Leadership, con’t • Austin established capital colony on west bank of Brazos River • Called settlement San Felipe de Austin…named for Stephen F. Austin and a saint • Settlement was center of colonial activity until it was burned down in Mexican Revolution

  43. Austin’s Leadership, con’t • Stephen F. Austin • 1st empresario in Texas • became known as “The Father of Texas” • Served as colonist’s representative to Mexican government • Translated Spanish for colonists • Communicated Mexican government policies to colonists

  44. http://www.buildingshsu.com/a/austin_stephen_f.php Stephen F. Austin freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fau14 http://www.lsjunction.com/people/austin.htm http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/stephen-f-austin-colony.htm

  45. Expanding the Empresarial System • After Stephen F. Austin paved the way and after the state colonization law of 1825 allowed other empresarios to obtain land grants, many other empresaries started colonies in Texas • By 1830, about 30 people had obtained land grants • See Empresario Contracts in Texas, 1823-1831

  46. Expanding the Empresarial System, con’t • Green DeWitt • 2nd most important empresario • Founded colony southwest of Austin’s original location • His colony’s headquarters was Gonzales • Had permission to move 400 families to Texas but only moved 166 • Martin de Leon • Settled about 200 families near coast of Texas between Lavaca and Guadalupe Rivers • Very successful rancher • Founded town of Victoria with wife Patricia • Victoria became center for trade between Texas and Mexico • Victoria is still successful farming and cattle community

  47. Expanding Empresarial System, con’t • Arthur Wavell and Ben Milam • Land grants along Red River • Haden Edwards • land grant in East Texas • Agreed to finance Austin’s dealings with govt • Later lost land grant after dispute with Mexico • Joseph Vehlein and David Burnet • Took over land grant that Edwards lost

  48. Expanding Empresarial System, con’t • James Power and James Hewetson • From Ireland • Brought colonists from Ireland • Settled Irish colony along Gulf Coast • John McMullen and James McGloin • From Ireland • Settled Irish colony along Nueces River

  49. Empresario Land Grants

  50. Texas in 1830 • By 1830s, population of Texas was about 20,000 people • La Bahia and Nacogdoches got much bigger • New towns of San Felipe, Gonzales, and Victoria • Cotton and cattle industries grew • Local governments were formed and working • Texas continued to grow because Mexican government, the empresarios, and the settlers all worked together