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Types of Memory. Information processing model. Sensory memory. Sensory memory. Senses Vision: iconic memory Auditory: echoic memory Purpose? Persistence: beyond physical duration Record until further processing Provides stability for senses. Photography: shutter speed. 1/30 1/500.

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sensory memory
Sensory memory

Senses

Vision: iconic memory

Auditory: echoic memory

Purpose?

Persistence: beyond physical duration

Record until further processing

Provides stability for senses

sensory memory5
Sensory memory

Task: You will see a grid of 12 letters very quickly. I will ask you to write down as many of the letters as you can after they are flashed.

iconic memory sperling 1960
Iconic memory: Sperling (1960)

Presentation time: 50ms

Whole report: 4 out of 12 (37%)

Auditory cue AFTER display

Partial report: 3 out of 4 (75%)

Rapidly decaying image!

short term memory and long term memory stm ltm
Short-term memory and Long-term memorySTM & LTM

Memory performance depends on three stages

Encoding

Storage

Retrieval

Form of information

Verbal (acoustic)

Visual (picture)

Storage:

What is capacity of STM?

STM  LTM

Rehearsal: use “inner voice” or“inner eye”

Examine how we RETRIEVE information

Recall

Recognition

working memory wm
Working Memory (WM)

WM: Short-term processing and storage of information

Phonological loop: verbal rehearsal

Visuospatial sketch pad: visuo-spatial rehearsal

Central executive: controls processing and allocates resources

Logie, Zucco, & Baddeley, 1990

episodic vs semantic memory
Episodic vs. Semantic memory
  • Semantic memory
    • Memory for knowledge
    • What do people eat for breakfast?
    • Recall facts and knowledge
  • Episodic memory
    • Memory of events
    • What did you have for breakfast?
    • Recall a list of words
  • Distinguishes type of info learned, not when learned
explicit vs implicit memory
Explicit vs. Implicit memory
  • Type of retrieval question
  • Explicit memory
    • Effortful, conscious recollection
    • Recall or recognition
  • Implicit memory
    • Remembering without awareness
    • Word fragment or identification
  • Distinguishes how info is retrieved
implicit memory tests
Implicit memory tests
  • Picture: What do you see?
  • Word: Fill in the fragment.
memory amnesia implicit vs explicit memory
Memory & AmnesiaImplicit vs Explicit memory
  • Warrington & Weiskrantz (1970)
    • Implicit vs explicit memory tests (fig above)
  • Jacoby & Witherspoon (1982) (text: pp 287)
    • Anterograde amnesia & homophones
    • Study: Hear “book-read” or “saxophone-reed”
    • Test: Asked to spell 2nd word in pair
amnesia movies
Amnesia & Movies
  • Memento (2000)
  • Regarding Henry (1991)
  • Fifty First Dates (2004)
  • The Bourne Identity (2002)
case study approach to study memory amnesia
Case study approach to study memory: Amnesia
  • Retrograde amnesia
    • Can’t remember events prior to point of injury
    • “Soap opera amnesia”
    • Rare – and most can recover memory loss
  • Anterograde amnesia
    • Memory loss after point of damage
    • Cannot form new memories
    • E.g. H.M.; Korsakoff’s syndrome; viral encephalitis
clive wearing
Clive Wearing
  • Dense retrograde and anterograde amnesia patient
  • Born in 1938, contracted viral encephalitis in 1985
  • Previously a very successful musician
  • Husband to 2nd wife; has children from 1st marriage
  • BBC 2005 – “Man with the 7s memory”
    • 20 yrs post injury – 67 yrs old
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDNDRDJy-vo&feature=related
  • 1998 documentary
    • 13 yrs post injury – 60 years old
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lu9UY8Zqg-Q&feature=related
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xCyvzI2aVUo&fea
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9BrCBq2FY_U&feature=related
thought paper
Thought paper
  • What is Clive Wearing capable of and not capable of doing?
  • Provide examples for the below vocabulary in your answer
    • Short-term memory vs. long-term memory
    • Explicit vs. implicit memory
    • Episodic vs. semantic memory