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Project Management
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  1. Project Management Rita M Anderson, PMP Directory of Project Management & Engineering University Technology Services

  2. What Is Project Management? • Project • Temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, or result. (PMBOK) • Project Management • Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. (PMBOK)

  3. Why Project Management? • Today’s Small Business • Single product or service focused • Sales • Marketing • Engineering • Manufacturing • Delivery • Support

  4. Project Management Manufacturing Marketing Sales IT, HR, Learning Accounting Support Engineering Why Project Management • PM Began with NASA • Today’s Corporations • Multiple lines of Business • Vertical Specialties • Projects Cut AcrossAll Departments

  5. CHAOS Report – Standish Group CHAOS Report - 1994 CHAOS Report 2004 34% Classified as Successful (Up to 35% in Latest Report) 15% Failure Rate Only $55B of $255B Wasted • Study of IT Projects • 16.2% of Projects Classified as Successful • 31% of IT Projects Fail • $140B of $250B in total US Projects $’s Wasted

  6. Why the Improvement? • Jim Johnson, Chairman • Improved Project Management • Iterative Development • Emergence of Web Technologies Source: SD Times, 3/2007

  7. Software Development Models • “Just Do It” Model • Code and Fix and Fix and Fix….. • Waterfall • Modified Waterfall • Iterative or Agile • Extreme Programming (Rapid Prototyping)

  8. Traditional Waterfall Concept Requirements Architect Design Code & Debug SystemTesting Acceptance Testing Deploy

  9. Modified Waterfall Concept Requirements Architect Design Code & Debug System Testing Acceptance Testing Deploy

  10. Iterative or Agile Methods • More Flexibility than Traditional Waterfall Methods • Break the Project Down into Small Phases • Execute the Waterfall Process on an Iterative Basis • Less Documentation, More Communication • More User Involvement, Especially in Testing • Ideal for Smaller Development Teams • Extreme Programming Forces Much More Overlap

  11. The Project Lifecycle • Project Management Process Groups • Initiation • Defines and authorizes the project or phase of the project • Planning • Refines the objectives and plans the course of action • Executing • Integrates people and other resources to carry out project • Monitoring & Controlling • Regularly measures progress; takes corrective action when needed • Closure • Formalizes acceptance of the final product, service, or result (Reference: PMBOK)

  12. How UTS Runs Projects Initiation Planning Execution & Control Closure http://uts.sc.edu/csprojects

  13. Project Initiation - Concept • Sponsor • The person or group that provides the resources for the project. • The high level executive who is “championing” the project. • Projects that are not well sponsored typically fare poorly. • Charter • Formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. • Defines objectives for the project and a high level view of customer expectations. • Establish the Project Team • The group of subject matter experts that will be working together on the project. (Reference: PMBOK)

  14. Know Your Stakeholders • Stakeholders • Persons or organizations, such as customers, sponsors, performing organizations, and the public, that are actively involved in the project, orwhose interests may be positively or negatively impacted by execution or completion of the project. (Reference: PMBOK)

  15. Requirements • Understand What Your Customer Expects the Project to Produce. • Avoid the trap of “Vague Requirements” • Avoid the Rock Hunt Exercise

  16. Requirements Exercise • Develop a Website for Outlook Training • Allow Faculty & Staff to • Review the Available Classes • Sign Up for the Class of Their Choice • Link to the University E-mail Information Center

  17. Examples of Bad Requirements • The application must be user friendly. • The application must perform well. • The application must be highly available. • The application must integrate with the new Payroll system. • Requirements Planning Takes Time • Specific, Measurable, Testable • Investing Time Up Front Saves Time Later

  18. Generating Good Requirements • Brainstorming, Delphi Method • Use Cases • Prototypes • Review with a group of Stakeholders • What Happens when Stakeholders Don’t Agree? • Project Manager must facilitate the discussion and compromise. • Project Manager should use the Project Sponsor to “break the tie.” • IT Managers cited poor requirements as one of the main reasons projects fail [Standish Group, 2000 ]

  19. Managing the Triple Constraint • 3 Key Factors • Scope • Time • Cost • Determine Whichis the Highest Priority and Can Not Change TIME QUALITY COST SCOPE

  20. Scope Management Cost Management Procurement Management Time Management (Schedule) Quality Management Communications Management Integration Management Human Resource Management Risk Management Project Planning Project Management Knowledge Areas: (Reference: PMBOK)

  21. Sample Project • Objective: Develop a solution to generate network user accounts for USC students and faculty/staff. • Key Requirements • Source of record for student info is the Student Database • Source of record for employee is in the HR Database • Create account when student is admitted • Eliminate student account 1 Yr after last class taken • Comply with FERPA regulations • Provide employee account from hire throughtermination

  22. Scope Management • Refine the Objectives • Specify what will be included • Specify what will not be included • List Assumptions • List Constraints • Review with Project Team & Stakeholders • Communicate, Communicate, Communicate

  23. Avoid Scope Creep • What’s Scope Creep? • Unauthorized Changes in Requirements • Additional Features that Just Appear • Example: • Provide accounts to retirees • Provide accounts to alumni • Provide accounts to faculty members from other schools who are collaborating with USC faculty on research

  24. Cost Management • Keep Costs Within Budget • Know Your Budget • Track Costs Regularly • Factors to Consider • Cost of Labor – Time is Money! • Cost of Contractors Vs. Employees • Time Value of $’s for Multi-Year Projects

  25. Other Knowledge Areas • Procurement Management • Decide How to Proceed • Make Vs. Buy Decision • Human Resource Management • Invest Time in Making the Team a Team. • Integration Management • Know the Environment. • Understand the Constraints and Assumptions.

  26. Communications Management • 90% of Project Management is Communications! • Determine Up Front • Who to Include • What to Communicate • When (How Often to Provide Updates) • How: Meetings, E-mail, Web Posts, etc. • Include Some Form of Regular Communication to All Stakeholders!

  27. Time Management • Scheduling • Determine the Work Breakdown Structure • Work Units – Typically No More than 80 Hrs of Work Each • Determine the Optimal Sequencing • Determine the Dependencies • Manage the Critical Path!

  28. Quality Management • Quality Planning • Identifying which quality standards are relevant and how to satisfy them. • Quality Assurance • Evaluating overall performance to ensure that standards are met. • Quality Control • Monitoring specific results to determine if they comply with standards and addressing how to resolve issues if needed. (Reference: PMBOK)

  29. Defect Removal “The longer a defect remains undetected, the more expensive it becomes to correct.” Source: Steve McConnell, http://stevemcconnell.com

  30. Defect Prevention “An unstable organization can not consistently produce high quality products.” • Focus on Defect Prevention • Clearly Defined Roles, Responsibilities – Up to 15% Reduction • Formalized Procedures – Up to 25% Reduction • Repeatable Processes – Up to 35% Reduction • Controls and Measures in Place – Up to 30% Reduction Source: David Longstreeet, www.SoftwareMetrics.com

  31. Capability Maturity Model Integration Optimizing Quantitatively Managed Defined Repeatable [Managed] Initial Initial *SEI CMMI was developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University

  32. Architect & Design • Different Solutions Require Different Approaches • Use Cases • Rapid Prototype • Pseudo Code • Flowcharts • Design Verification • Design and Code Reviews • Validate that Each Requirement Can be Tested • Define the Test Plan During Design

  33. Development & Test • Detailed, Labor Intensive Tasks • Best Practice: Implement Peer Review of Code • Avoid “Gold Plating” • Code to the Requirements • Stages of Testing • Unit Test • Systems Testing • Acceptance Testing

  34. User Account Example

  35. Risk Management • Key Area for Project Manager • Risk Identification • Lessons Learned from Previous Projects • Brainstorming with the Team • Ask Subject Matter Experts • Risk Quantification • Risk Response Development • Risk Response Control • Risk Should Reduce as Project Progresses (Reference: PMBOK)

  36. Some Classic Mistakes • People-Related • Adding people late to a project • Unrealistic Expectations • Process-Related Mistakes • Insufficient Planning • Overly Optimistic Schedules • Product-Related Mistakes • Feature Creep Source: S. McConnell, Software Project Survival Guide

  37. Managing Issues • Managing the Plan is an on-going task • Track All Issues • Assign some form of numbering scheme • Description of Issue • Priority • Owner • Date Identified • Date to be Resolved • Status

  38. Typical Risk Matrix

  39. Project Execution & Control • Status Updates Frequently • Establish Metrics Upfront and Track Metrics • Adjust When Issues Occur • Deal with Problems BEFORE They Occur • Project Schedule Slips BEFORE They are realized • Exercise Contingency Planning

  40. Project Closure • Ensure that Stakeholders “Accept” the Product, Service, or Result • Archive All Project Documentation • Transition the On-going Product Support to Operations • Hold Lessons Learned • Celebrate the Team’s Success

  41. Portfolio Management • Most Companies Have Multiple High Priority Projects In Progress Concurrently • Portfolio Management -> Balancing Priorities • PMO Can Assist • Ensure that Projects Move through the Pipeline Efficiently • Assist in Managing Resources • Ensure Consistency in Practice & Delivery

  42. Project Management Squares • Object of the Game: Obtain Funding for your Project • Process: Project Managers take turns claiming squares, similar to tic-tac-toe • Funding is secured as follows: • Each square that is in a row or column of 3 or more counts as $10,000 per square • A square’s value can only be counted once. • Minimal Funding = $30,000 • Expected Funding = $40,000 - $70,000 • Well Funded = $80,000+

  43. Scoring

  44. More Information • UTS Projects • http://uts.sc.edu/csprojects • E-Mail Project or the UTS Project Office • Contact Rita Anderson • ritaa@sc.edu • 803-777-7507