Differentiated Instruction. For Reading Instruction. Part One:. Vocabulary Instruction that Makes a Difference!. Of Limited Value…. Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Teacher-selected words alone. Of Durable Value…. Words in clusters
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Differentiated Instruction For Reading Instruction
Part One: Vocabulary Instruction that Makes a Difference!
Of Limited Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Teacher-selected words alone Of Durable Value… Words in clusters Multiple exposures in various contexts Chances to speak, hear, write the words Manipulation of forms of words Classify and categorize word lists Word games Student-selected words (differentiation)
Multiple Exposures • Connections to other subjects • Morphology chart: How does the word morph into other forms? • Cumulative use
Richness Use both verbal and non-verbal modes Make connections to related words
Selecting a Target Word • Will be frequently used • Links to known words • Can be key to multiple related words
Concept First Describe the meaning of the wordconcept) to allow students to connect new knowledge (the word) to existing knowledge (the concept) “Did you ever…?” “Well, there’s a name for that. It’s called…”
Find the word that means… Middle of page 14: Find the word that means “mocking, in a cruel way” Bottom of page 16: Find the word that means “violation of a rule” Top of page 17: Find the phrase that means “became prepared to face hardship”
exempted petulantly ironic audible somber palpable weary jeering sinuous flailing enhance fretful reflective carnage assuage Why have students select their own words to learn from the text? The Student
Different levels of familiarity with words Never heard of it, but I’m interested in it. Never heard of it; not likely to use it if I knew it Might know what it means never used it Heard of it; don’t know what it means, not interested The Student Have used it, but not in this context Never heard of it, but it will be soon be used a lot around me Heard of it, don’t know what it means, but am interested
Tier II Words Tier III Words Tier I Words: Domain-specific terminology; “Glossary” words Language of academics, business, government “Vocab List” words Basic conversational words: Ask Dead Name Find out; figure out Answer Rain Use Sharp Get Take apart and put together balance Photosynthesis Cytoplasm Metamorphosis Asymmetrical Bathysphere Rhetoric Deoxyribonucleic acid Artifact Habeas corpus Diaspora Polysyndeton Adjective Interrogate Deceased Designate; designation; identify, identification Ascertain; determine Precipitate, precipitation Utilize; employ Acute Acquire Analyze; synthesize equilibrium Code-switching
Science English Everyday English: I • Which feature best distinguishes one • form of electromagnetic energy from • another? • Color • Wavelength • Surface temperature • Distance traveled • How can we tell the difference between • one form of electromagnetic energy from • another? • 1. color • 2. wavelength • 3. Temperature at the surface • 4. How far it has traveled 1. What do all four animals have in common? • How are all four animals the same? • Young frogs do not look like adult • Frogs. What name do we give to this • Kind of change?
Three-Step Demystification Process • Reword the questions into Tier I to understand • the meaning. • 2. Go back to the original language (Tier II) • now that you understand it. • Answer the questions. • 3. Create your own questions, using Tier II and III.
Semantic Maps and Charts Visual representations that create associations, deepen, and extend word understandings
Synonym Set Antonym Set Notional Set: (The Neighboorhood) Other words that go with this topic Grammatical Set: The way in which this word is used in a sentence; the words that may surround it: Morphological Set: The other forms that this word can take by using suffixes and prefixes Connotative Set Positive, Negative, or Neutral Technical/Scholarly or Conversational/Informal Metaphorical or Literal Etymological Set: Root; combining forms Target Word: A word to be used as bait for other words The Fishing Model
The Quadrant Model Complete sentence of at least 12 words: Use an action verb Include a visual Breakdown: Prefix (or combining form) Root: Suffix: Synonym:___________ Antonym:___________ Target Word: My guess: Dictionary or glossary definition: Noun form: The___________ Verb form: To____________ Adjective/Adverb form: very________ very________ Visual:
The Tree Model Geographical Features Water Land Navigable Unnavigable Arable Not Arable Rivers Lakes Seas Streams Creeks Tributaries Estuaries
Frayer Model word or phrase: definition: Examples: Non-Examples
The Multiple Meaning Model Meaning (for this class) word conversational meaning: Sentence (for this class) Visual: conversational sentence:
Examples: function, property, reaction, origin, tangent, variable, solve, mean, graphic, base, extreme, factor, fact, imaginary, rational, Irrational, determine power, prime, product, multiple, operation, radical, remainder, range, regular, proof, difference, cell, value, area, cube, root, plot, complementary, common, depression, digit, operation, frequency,graph, median, mode, equation, equal, similar, balance The Multiple Meaning Model math/science meaning word conversational meaning: math/science sentence: Visual: conversational sentence:
The Spider Model Opposites Images Target Word Descriptors Actions
Morphology Kit Adverb-making suffix: -ly
Word Components: Level 1 (usually known in elementary grades) Prefixes ex- pre- re- un- dis- non- im- mis- mini- maxi-
Word Components: Level 2 (usually known in intermediate grades) Prefixes co-; con-; com- syn-; sym- in-; en- (into) sub-; sup- e- a-; ab- inter- intra- mono- uni- bi-; tri-; quad-, etc. cent-; milli-; mega- poly-; multi- omni- trans- semi- bio-; geo-; eco-
Word Components: Level 3 (usually known in high school) Prefixes pseudo- demi- endo-; ecto- pro- per- peri- hemi- ob- bene- mal- photo- nom- ig- muni- contra- philo-
Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Basic: -ject (to throw) -port (to carry) -scrip, scribe (to write) -vert, vers (to turn) -pos, pon (to place) -tract (to draw) -pel, pul (to drive) -struct (to build) -grad, gress (to step) -plic, plex (to fold) -flic, flex (to bend) -fic, fac (to make) -miss, mit (to send) -sid, sed (to sit) -spec (to see) -voc (to call) -dict (to say) -rupt (to break) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- co- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or
Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Advanced: -cad, -cas,-cid (to fall) -dyna (force; power) -magn (great; large) -quir, -quis (to seek) -gen (race, kind origin) -cham, -cam (vault) -cen (to judge) -doc, -dox (to think) -greg (to flock) -cau (to burn) -ess, -sent (to exist) -close, -clud, -clus (to close) -mand, -mend (to order) -junct (to join) -jur, -jus (to swear) -lith (stone) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- ne- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or -ize -ence, ance -ary
Academic “Flash Phrases” Phrases that should become immediately recognizable and meaningful in the subject area context
I love Paris in the the springtime The brain operates for economy of effort (filling in gaps, making assumptions)
Differentiation for the flash phrases Create and play word games to reinforce the visual cues (www.quia.com; puzzlemaker.com) Create flash cards Create classroom visuals: mobiles, book covers, folders, etc.
Part Two: Elements of DI What are some of the key structures of DI? What do I already do and use?
Content…. Process….. Product (Assessment)
What does DI look like? “Content” differentiation
What does DI look like? Process Differentiation
What does DI look like? “Product” or “Assessment” Differentiation
Differentiating Content Begin with concepts and competencies (understandings and abilities) Decide on acceptable evidence of learning Decide on specific content
Differentiating Process Begin with concepts and competencies Decide on acceptable evidence of learning Offer different but appropriate modes of learning
Ways to Differentiate Process Learning Style Choices: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Social Left Brain/ Right Brain preferences Choices based on temperament: Work alone, work in a group, work holistically, work step-by-step, etc.
DI for Assessment: Showing Knowing Begin with concepts and competencies Decide on content Decide on acceptable different ways of evidencing learning
Depth and Complexity Degrees of detail Numbers of variables, aspects, factors Amount of steps in a procedure Summarize a story Evaluate a story. Analyze a story
Depth and Complexity Degree of abstraction Amount of prior knowledge and prior skill required Amount of independence expected Explain why there is a fire motif in R & J Give several examples of two visual motifs in a film Romeo and Juliet (1996)
Create and find drawings Create/Complete graphic organizers Go on field trips Create visuals for the classroom Use technology Create or view cartoons, read graphic novels Integrate words with images Ideas for Differentiating Process & Assessment: For visual learners:
Brainstorm Discuss, debate Play or hear music; Create rhythm, rhyme, rap Create or hear mnemonic devices Ideas for Differenting Process & Assessment: For auditory learners: