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African Decolonization. End of WWII to Present. Beginnings of Decolonization. At the end of WWII only a few nations were independent: Liberia: founded in 1822 as a haven for freed slaves S. Africa: granted self-government in 1910, controlled by white minority Egypt: 1922

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african decolonization

African Decolonization

End of WWII to Present

beginnings of decolonization
Beginnings of Decolonization
  • At the end of WWII only a few nations were independent:
    • Liberia: founded in 1822 as a haven for freed slaves
    • S. Africa: granted self-government in 1910, controlled by white minority
    • Egypt: 1922
    • Ethiopia: taken in 1936 by Italy, Freed in 1945 (acquired Eritrea, later won its freedom)
  • After these, the Arab and Berber nations of N. Africa gained their freedom (Libya, Sudan, Morocco, and Tunisia)
  • One by one, Britain gave independence to its colonies, ending with Zimbabwe in 1980.
  • Other European nations gradually gave up their colonies
problems in the african nations
Problems in the African Nations
  • Unity
    • inherited borders drawn up by imperial powers, split ethnic groups and tribes
  • Finding Professionals
    • before independence Europeans dominated professions
    • few Africans had training as educators, doctors, scientists, engineers, etc…
  • Maintaining Government:
    • When independence came, Africans had little experience running a government
more problems in african nations
More Problems in African Nations
  • Living Standards
    • most in poverty, lack capital for development
    • Foreign investors deterred by political instability
  • Disease
    • AIDS ravaging Southern Africa, far greater percentage of Africans infected than other areas of the world
  • African Unity
    • Haile Selassie believed that the differences (linguistic, racial, economic, and political) too vast and recommended a loose organization of nations
    • OAU (Organization of African Unity)
goals of oau
Goals of OAU
  • Loose Confederation
    • Heads of state meet once a year
    • Council meets every 6 months
    • Commission of Mediation and Conciliation to settle inter-African disputes
  • African cooperation
    • Foreign policy, defense, economics, education
  • Liberation of all African territories still under foreign rule
    • Worked to end white rule in S. Africa
south africa brief history
South Africa: Brief History
  • 1815 Boers Resent British
    • Great Trek; found Orange Free State and Transvaal
    • Gold Discovered
  • 1899 Rhodes tries to annex two free states, begins Boer War
  • 1910 S. Africa granted self-government from British, still a dominion
    • Limited voting and office holding to whites
  • 1960 S. Africa ceases to recognize British monarch, becomes a republic
  • 43 million
  • 75% Black, Bantu groups
  • 14% White, Afrikaners (Dutch) outnumber British 3 to 2
  • 9% mixed ancestry
  • 3% Asian (Indian)
  • 11 official languages
  • 1948-1994 National party (Afrikaner) governed
    • System of Apartheid
      • Blacks must carry i.d. cards
      • reside in designated sections called black townships
      • Had to travel long distances to jobs
      • Black males from other countries brought in to work mines
        • Reside in dormitories, see families only on periodic visits home
      • Blacks have no vote and no say in Government
    • Bantustans
      • National party imposed “separate development” for racial groups
      • 1959: Set aside 13% of rural area for Black homelands called Bantustans; few resources and little farmland
      • 1976 granted independence to 4 Bantustans
  • African National Congress created in 1912 to protest apartheid
  • 1960 government banned ANC, Nelson Mandela and other ANC leaders organized an underground army
    • Mandela arrested in ’62 spent 27 years in jail
  • Nations around the world condemned apartheid, the UN
    • Deprived SA of its seat in the General Assembly
    • Banned arms sales to SA
    • Economic sanctions
ending apartheid
Ending Apartheid
  • 1989 President F. W. de Klerk began phasing out apartheid
    • Lifted bans on ANC
    • 1990 Released Mandela and began releasing 3000 political prisoners
    • Revoked laws banning black property ownership in white areas
    • 1991 Allowed black students to go to white schools
  • 1991 UN began lifting sanctions
  • 1993 SA’s government for the first time accepted non-whites as members of the cabinet
  • 1994 Mandela’s ANC won 60% of vote, Mandela became first black president
problems still facing south africa
Problems still facing South Africa
  • Whites still hold most wealth
  • Bitter racial and ethnic disputes still divide the people
  • 1999 Thabo Mbeki succeeded Mandela (80 year old Mandela did not run)