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Decolonization of Africa. Africa Produced Many Newly-Independent Nations in a Very Short Time. Other Struggles in Decolonization. Neo-colonialism – continued dependence on colonizer Racism Between natives & European settlers Diversity of ethnicities and linguistic groups

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AfricaProduced Many Newly-Independent Nations in a Very Short Time

Other struggles in decolonization
Other Struggles in Decolonization

  • Neo-colonialism – continued dependence on colonizer

  • Racism

    • Between natives & European settlers

  • Diversity of ethnicities and linguistic groups

    • Divisions due to Berlin Conference, imperialism

Achieving independence
Achieving Independence

  • Pan-Africanism

    • Movement for African unity in the continent

    • Collective self-reliance is best way to overcome neo-colonialism

    • Kwame Nkrumah wrote: "It is clear we must find an African solution to our problems, and that this can only be found in African unity. Divided we are weak; united, Africa could become one of the greatest forces for good in the world."

Ghana s peaceful independence 1957
Ghana’’’’’’s“Peaceful Independence - 1957

  • British colony

    • Rich in gold & diamonds

  • 1st sub-Saharan colony to achieve independence

  • Before independence

    • Socially, religiously, & regionally divided

    • After WWII, Britain passed Gold Coast Constitution – gave Ghanaians some political participation in legislature


  • Ghanaian political parties formed

  • United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) spoke for independence

  • Kwame Nkrumah – formed Convention People’s Party (CPP)

    • “Self-government NOW”

    • non-violent leader of independence movement (boycotts, strikes)

    • CPP began winning majority of legislature

    • Became 1st prime minister of Ghana

Ghana after independence

  • Nkrumah overthrown by coup in 1966

    • Political instability for two decades

    • Recovered in 1990s

  • 2012 Failed States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least failed state in the world and the 5th least failed state in Africa

  • Still lack sanitation, drinking water, access to quality education

    • Depends on where you are in Ghana

  • Border disputes with Cote D’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)


  • Most exploited region

  • Belgian colony

    • Many natural resources (diamonds, copper, coffee, oil, cobalt, rubber)

  • In 1950s, Belgian control deteriorated

  • Joseph Kasavubu

    • Independence for Bakongo people

    • First president

  • Patrice Lumumba

    • More national and militant leader

    • First Prime Minister


  • Riots against Belgian control

  • Round Table Conference in Belgium in 1960 – agreed for Congo to become independent

  • Congo not prepared

    • Army mutinied

    • Provinces (such as Katanga under MoiseTshombe) revolted

    • Influence of Cold War drama

    • Kasavubu had Lumumba captured – Lumumba killed by Katanga rebels

  • Military coup by Mobutu SeseSeko

    • Dictator, impoverished the nation (but he had plenty of $.....)


  • Independent from British control in 1922

    • Gamal Abdel Nasser – army officer – assisted overthrow of King Farouk

    • Became Egypt’s leader

  • Battled with Israel, Britain, & France to keep Suez Canal under Egypt’s control

  • Nasser allied w/Soviet Union in building of Aswan High Dam

  • Anwar Sadat became new leader – anti-Soviet Union

    • Assassinated

  • Hosni Mubarak took power, kept diplomatic relationships with USSR & US

Issues in egypt
Issues in Egypt

  • Ethnic, linguistic, and religious divisions

    • Mostly Sunni Muslim, but there are Christians and other religions present

  • Political instability

    • Arab Spring – ousting of Mubarak

    • Military junta as provisional gov’t

    • Oppression/turmoil under Muhammad Morsi – overthrow

    • Now led by Adly Mansour as acting president


  • French colony

    • Many French settled there (settler colony)

  • Independence was long, bitter civil war

    • Reformists in Algeria influenced by Arab-Islamic nationalism

    • Mid-1950s – Algerian revolution against French control

      • Led by National Liberation Front (NLF)

      • Guerrilla warfare, terrorism, torture, etc.

    • Charles De Gaulle became president of France – negotiated settlement with Algeria

      • Algeria granted independence in 1962


  • New leaders committed to centralized control

  • Made 4-year plan for development

  • Nationalized petroleum & natural gas

  • Industrialization of economy

  • However…

    • Wealth did not trickle down

    • Rivalries with nearby regions for dominance

    • Extremism, civil strife

  • 1) What were similarities in the independence movements of these four colonies?

  • 2) What were differences among the independence movements of these four colonies?

  • 3) What made independence movements difficult in these colonies?

  • 4) What roles did Nkrumah and Lumumba have in their nation's independence? Were they more similar or different?