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Decolonization of Africa. Africa Produced Many Newly-Independent Nations in a Very Short Time. Other Struggles in Decolonization. Neo-colonialism – continued dependence on colonizer Racism Between natives & European settlers Diversity of ethnicities and linguistic groups

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Decolonization of Africa

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other struggles in decolonization
Other Struggles in Decolonization
  • Neo-colonialism – continued dependence on colonizer
  • Racism
    • Between natives & European settlers
  • Diversity of ethnicities and linguistic groups
    • Divisions due to Berlin Conference, imperialism
achieving independence
Achieving Independence
  • Pan-Africanism
    • Movement for African unity in the continent
    • Collective self-reliance is best way to overcome neo-colonialism
    • Kwame Nkrumah wrote: "It is clear we must find an African solution to our problems, and that this can only be found in African unity. Divided we are weak; united, Africa could become one of the greatest forces for good in the world."
ghana s peaceful independence 1957
Ghana’’’’’’s“Peaceful Independence - 1957
  • British colony
    • Rich in gold & diamonds
  • 1st sub-Saharan colony to achieve independence
  • Before independence
    • Socially, religiously, & regionally divided
    • After WWII, Britain passed Gold Coast Constitution – gave Ghanaians some political participation in legislature
  • Ghanaian political parties formed
  • United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) spoke for independence
  • Kwame Nkrumah – formed Convention People’s Party (CPP)
    • “Self-government NOW”
    • non-violent leader of independence movement (boycotts, strikes)
    • CPP began winning majority of legislature
    • Became 1st prime minister of Ghana
ghana after independence
  • Nkrumah overthrown by coup in 1966
    • Political instability for two decades
    • Recovered in 1990s
  • 2012 Failed States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least failed state in the world and the 5th least failed state in Africa
  • Still lack sanitation, drinking water, access to quality education
    • Depends on where you are in Ghana
  • Border disputes with Cote D’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • Most exploited region
  • Belgian colony
    • Many natural resources (diamonds, copper, coffee, oil, cobalt, rubber)
  • In 1950s, Belgian control deteriorated
  • Joseph Kasavubu
    • Independence for Bakongo people
    • First president
  • Patrice Lumumba
    • More national and militant leader
    • First Prime Minister
  • Riots against Belgian control
  • Round Table Conference in Belgium in 1960 – agreed for Congo to become independent
  • Congo not prepared
    • Army mutinied
    • Provinces (such as Katanga under MoiseTshombe) revolted
    • Influence of Cold War drama
    • Kasavubu had Lumumba captured – Lumumba killed by Katanga rebels
  • Military coup by Mobutu SeseSeko
    • Dictator, impoverished the nation (but he had plenty of $.....)
  • Independent from British control in 1922
    • Gamal Abdel Nasser – army officer – assisted overthrow of King Farouk
    • Became Egypt’s leader
  • Battled with Israel, Britain, & France to keep Suez Canal under Egypt’s control
  • Nasser allied w/Soviet Union in building of Aswan High Dam
  • Anwar Sadat became new leader – anti-Soviet Union
    • Assassinated
  • Hosni Mubarak took power, kept diplomatic relationships with USSR & US
issues in egypt
Issues in Egypt
  • Ethnic, linguistic, and religious divisions
    • Mostly Sunni Muslim, but there are Christians and other religions present
  • Political instability
    • Arab Spring – ousting of Mubarak
    • Military junta as provisional gov’t
    • Oppression/turmoil under Muhammad Morsi – overthrow
    • Now led by Adly Mansour as acting president
  • French colony
    • Many French settled there (settler colony)
  • Independence was long, bitter civil war
    • Reformists in Algeria influenced by Arab-Islamic nationalism
    • Mid-1950s – Algerian revolution against French control
      • Led by National Liberation Front (NLF)
      • Guerrilla warfare, terrorism, torture, etc.
    • Charles De Gaulle became president of France – negotiated settlement with Algeria
      • Algeria granted independence in 1962
  • New leaders committed to centralized control
  • Made 4-year plan for development
  • Nationalized petroleum & natural gas
  • Industrialization of economy
  • However…
    • Wealth did not trickle down
    • Rivalries with nearby regions for dominance
    • Extremism, civil strife

1) What were similarities in the independence movements of these four colonies?

  • 2) What were differences among the independence movements of these four colonies?
  • 3) What made independence movements difficult in these colonies?
  • 4) What roles did Nkrumah and Lumumba have in their nation's independence? Were they more similar or different?