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LSP_MAIN. Language Structure. Introduction Activity. Main Teaching Points. Practice. Practice I. Practice II. Practice III. Practice IV. LSP1_1. Language Structures Introduction Activity.

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lsp main

Language Structure

Introduction Activity

Main Teaching Points


Practice I

Practice II

Practice III

Practice IV

lsp1 1

Language Structures Introduction Activity

Combine each pair or group of the following sentences into one, using a relative clause.

1. The people are of my own age. I like them most.

The people I like most are those of my own age.

2. Ruth admires Mr. Mosia. She offers to be his

helper in his lab.

Ruth, who admires Mr. Mosia, offers to be his helper in his lab.

lsp1 2

Language Structures Introduction Activity

3. John never combed his hair. It was always untidy.

John’s hair, which he never combed, was always untidy.

4. Lucy is only 17 years old. She will get married

soon. The news shocked all of us.

The news that Lucy, who is only 17 years old, will get married soon, shocked all of us./ Lucy, who is only 17 years old, will get married soon, which shocked all of us.

lsp1 3

Language Structures Introduction Activity

5. Mary’s blouse is light yellow. It is easy to get dirty.

Mary’s blouse, the color of which is light yellow, is easy to get dirty.

6. Chen is a librarian. She can speak English like a

native speaker. She is the only one among the

librarians. I haven’t met a second one like her.

Chen is the only librarian that I’ve met who can speak English like a native speaker.

lsp1 4

Language Structures Introduction Activity

7. Mr. Green is a professor. He is very learned. I

haven’t met a second one like him.

Mr. Green is the most learned professor that I’ve ever met.

8. You did a lot of things. They annoyed your mother.

Do you know that?

Do you know that everything you did annoyed your mother?

lsp2 1

Language Structures Main Teaching Points

The relative clause introduced by pronoun + of + which

The relative clause introduced by who / that and preceded by another relative clause

I’ve got two books that deal with music,both of whichI like very much.

Cathy is the only student (that) I know who can really play chess.

lsp2 2

Language Structures Main Teaching Points

The relative clause introduced by that and containing there be

The relative clause introduced by which, its antecedent being the main clause

Is there anything else (that) you’d like to buy thatyou don’t see on the shelves?

The 10∶30 train is the fastest train (that) there is to Beijing.

Zhao Ren can speak English very fluently, which is hard to believe.

lsp i 1

Practice Practice I

Direction: Listen to the recording and complete the dialogues. Then make similar dialogues with your partner by using the cues.


You seem to know a lot about music.

B: Not really very much, but I do like to read

books about it.


Do you own any books that deal with music?

B:Yes, I’ve got two, both of which I like very much.

lsp i 1 pop
LSP I_1_pop

Practice Practice I

Yes, I’ve got two,

Yes, I’ve got three, all of which are worth reading / none of which is dull / one of which I like very much. //

lsp i 2

Practice Practice I

【Cues of Practice I】

lsp ii a1

Practice Practice II



Do you know Cathy?


Cathy who?


Cathy Hill.


Of course I know her.

She’s the only student that I

know who can really play chess.

lsp ii a2

Practice Practice II

【Cues of Practice II】

Cathy Hill

David Jackson

Eliza Keller

the student

the singer

the architect

I know

You told me about

I was introduced to

can really play chess

has a large collection

of rare stamps

lsp ii b1

Practice Practice II



Here you are.

Half a dozen tins of beef stew. Is

there anything else (that) you’d like to buy that you don’t see on the shelves?


Yes. Have you got any of the tinned butter that was advertised on TV?


Yes. How many tins would you like?


Two, please.

lsp ii b2

Practice Practice II

【Cues of Practice II】

lsp iii 1

Practice Practice III


I’m going to Beijing.

Can you tell me which train

will take me there in the shortest possible time?


Take the 10∶30 one.

A:Is it very fast?


I should think so.

It’s the fastest train (that) there

is to Beijing.

lsp iii 2

Practice Practice III

【Cues of Practice III】

lsp iv 1

Practice Practice IV


Do you happen to know Zhao Ren?


You mean the first-year student from a small mountain village in Jiangxi?




Well, I’ve heard a lot about him, but I haven’t met him yet.

What about him?


He can speak English very fluently, which is really hard to believe / and that’s really hard to believe.

lsp iv 2

Practice Practice IV

【Cues of Practice IV】

dialogue main

Dialogue I


Oral Practice

Role Play

Dialogue II

Phrases, Sentences and Expressions


Oral Practice

dialogues1 1 1

Dialogue I Dialogue

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Hi, Qian. I heard you were sick. How do you feel now?

Oh, thank you, Ray, for coming to see me. It was a very bad cold. But I feel much better today. My fever’s gone and so is the cough. I’m almost myself again.

A bad cold almost gone in a few days’ time? That’s a quick recovery. Who’s been treating you? And what medication are you on?

I went to a traditional Chinese doctor who prescribed some herbal medicine for me.





dialogues1 1 2

Dialogue I Dialogue


So you’ve been taking the magical herbal remedy.

Yes, I’ve always found Chinese medicinal herbs especially effective for treating bad colds. (Someone is knocking at the door)

Oh, it’s the doctor. Come in, Dr. Wang. Ray, meet Dr. Wang. Dr. Wang, this is Ray Taylor, a friend of mine from Canada.

How do you do, Dr. Wang? It’s a great pleasure to meet you.




dialogues1 1 3

Dialogue I Dialogue

How do you do, Mr. Taylor? I’m very glad to meet you, too.

I’ve always wanted to meet someone who specialize in traditional Chinese medicine. I hope you won’t mind me asking you some questions.

Not at all, but if you don’t mind, please let me attend to my patient first.

Sure. We can’t neglect our patient.

(A little while later)





dialogues1 1 4

Dialogue I Dialogue

Now, Mr. Taylor, what would you like to know?

I have a question about traditional Chinese medicine which bothers me all the time. We believe our Western medical practice is by nature scientific. Do you consider your medical practice also scientifically based?

It all depends on what you mean by “scientific”. That’s a big topic for a casual chat. But let me try to explain in a few words. Traditional Chinese medicine bases itself on the belief that human ailments result from a loss of balance between yin and yang,




dialogues1 1 5

Dialogue I Dialogue

two complementary forces of vital energy called chi that are supposed to make up all aspects and phenomena of life. The herbal medication, when properly used, and supported by the acupuncture treatment when necessary, will help restore the harmonious state of balance of yin and yang vital energy in the body of a patient. Does that make sense to you?

Not quite. But this yin and yang theory sounds quite mystical! I’ve heard about acupuncture therapy, and also moxibustion and cupping therapies. These treatments are effective, aren’t they?


dialogues1 1 6

Dialogue I Dialogue

Yes, they are. They work on the same principles as the herbal medicine.

How do you compare yourself with those Chinese doctors who practise Western medicine?

We specialize in different fields, but the relationship of the two medical practices is one of complementation. We learn from each other’s strengths to make up for our deficiencies.

Do you receive very different training?





dialogues1 1 7

Dialogue I Dialogue

We have some basic training in common. Many doctors of Western medicine have learned the theories and clinical practice of herbal medicine, while traditional Chinese doctors have received training in the techniques of scientific diagnosis and treatment.

What an excellent combination! Now one more question. How do traditional doctors usually diagnose illnesses?

The first thing we do is to feel the patient’s pulse. The pulse tells about a person’s state of health. Then we also look at the colour of the patient’s tongue and face.




dialogues1 1 8

Dialogue I Dialogue

Oh, the whole thing is just beyond me. But I’ll do my best to keep my yin and yangin balance.


dialogue note i m almost
Dialogue_ Note _I’m almost …

I’m almost myself again. — I’m almost completely recovered.

dialogue note and what
Dialogue_ Note _ And what …

And what medication are you on? — And what medical treatment are you receiving?

dialogue note herbal medicine
Dialogue_ Note _herbal medicine

herbal medicine:草药

medicinal herbs: 药草

herbal medication: using herbal medicine to treat illnesses

dialogue note a loss of
Dialogue_ Note _a loss of …

a loss of balance between yin and yang:阴阳失调

dialogue note acupuncture treatment
Dialogue_ Note_ acupuncture treatment

acupuncture treatment:针刺疗法

moxibustion: 艾灸

cupping therapy: 拔火罐

dialogue note does that
Dialogue_ Note_ Does that …

Does that make sense to you? — Does that give you a clear idea? Do you understand that?

make sense to: to have a clear meaning that is easy to understand


No matter how I tried to read it, the sentence didn’t make any sense to me.

dialogue note the whole
Dialogue_ Note_ the whole…

the whole thing is just beyond me. — the whole thing is beyond my understanding; the whole thing is more than I can understand

dialogue word recovery
Dialogue_ Word _ recovery

recovery:n.a return to good health, a strong condition,



She made a quick recovery from her illness and was soon back at work.

Will the government’s policies lead to an economic recovery?

dialogue word prescribe
Dialogue_ Word _ prescribe say what medicine or treatment a sick

person should or must have


What can you prescribe for the pain in my back, doctor?

dialogue word remedy
Dialogue_ Word_ remedy

remedy:n.a way of curing something


A good night’s sleep would be the best remedy for your headache.

dialogue word attend to
Dialogue_ Word_ attend to

attend to:to direct one’s efforts and interest towards; to

deal with or look after


Excuse me, but I have an urgent matter to attend to.

You’d better attend to the children first — they need their breakfast.

dialogue word by nature
Dialogue_ Word_ by nature

by nature:if someone has a particular characteristic or

quality by nature, it is a part of their



It’s not in her nature to be rude; she’s polite by nature.

dialogue word ailment
Dialogue_ Word_ ailment illness that is not serious


He’s always complaining of some ailments or other.

dialogue word complementary
Dialogue_ Word_ complementary

complementary:adj.making something complete,

supplying what is lacking or needed for



The computer and the human mind have different but complementary abilities.

dialogue word complementation
Dialogue_ Word_ complementation


dialogue word diagnose
Dialogue_ Word_ diagnose discover the nature of a disease or fault

by making a careful examination


The doctor diagnosed my illness as a rare bone disease.

dialogue s be supposed to
Dialogue_ S_ be supposed to

be supposed to


A has been studying very hard these days. B asks for the reason. A explains.

A: I must say that I’ve never studied so hard!

B: I wonder what makes you work so hard.

A: We’re supposed to know every poem by heart during

the coming exam!

dialogue s to make up for
Dialogue_ S_ to make up for

to make up for


A is not going home this weekend. B asks him for the reason. A explains.

A: I’m not going home this weekend.

B: Why not?

A: I haven’t finished reading my reference books. I’m

going to make up for it during the weekend.

dialogue s keep in balance
Dialogue_ S_ balance balance


A is good at his studies, so is he at sports. He is always busy. B wonders.

A: Yes, I’m busy all day.

B: Indeed you are! You take part in sports, and you also

make good grades in your studies.

A: I think this is the way to be a modern young man — to

keep everything in balance.

oral practice1
Oral practice1

Dialogue I Oral Practice

Complete the following dialogue between Jane and Chen.

Situation: Jane, a Canadian, is curious about the treatment of diseases by acupuncture. She discusses the problem with Chen, a Chinese traditional medical student.






I heard when I was at home that your doctors could do wonders.Do wonders? ?Oh, lots of us know this — no medicine, no operation are needed to cure the sick.Oh, and moxibustion.And an operation anaesthesia.

What do you mean


you mean acupuncture


can be performed without


oral practice2
Oral practice2

Dialogue I Oral Practice









That’s where you’re wrong. ?Yes. The anaesthesia by needling. ?You insert some needles into different points of the body, then numbness is produced. So

anaesthesia.I see. ?It can treat different diseases, such as nervous disorder, goitre, rheumatism and arthritis. ?



is administered


What’s needling


that’s just a different kind of


What else can the needle do


Is it possible


oral practice3
Oral practice3

Dialogue I Oral Practice



Of course. I know a traditional Chinese doctor quite well. I

for yourself.Thank you. That’s .

can take you to his hospital to see


exactly what I want


role play1

Dialogue I Role Play

• Mrs. William Baker is a foreign tourist in City N in

China. Three days ago, when she went shopping alone,

she was caught in a shower and fell ill. Liang An, a

guide from the China International Travel Service, took

her to a traditional Chinese doctor, who prescribed for

her some herbal medicine. She soon recovered. Now

Mrs. Baker and Liang An are having a talk about

traditional Chinese medicine.

• Please use the strategies and sentence frames you’ve


role play2

Dialogue I Role Play

Role Card 1 — You are Mrs. W. Baker. You were drenched in a downpour three days ago. Since then you ached all over and suffered from dizziness and palpitations. You had no fever, though. Liang An, a guide from China International Travel Service, took you to a local medical doctor, Dr. Lu. His diagnosis was that your illness was caused by nervous strain, the cold and the wet. There was a pronounced deficiency of yang. He prescribed for your illness some herbal medicine. Two days later you were much better. Dr. Lu gave you another prescription of herbal medicine. You were completely cured even before the herbs had been consumed. Your recent illness and its recovery serve as a convincing example of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine. You get interested in traditional Chinese medicine and you ask Liang about it.

role play3

Dialogue I Role Play

Role Card 2 — You are Liang An. You are a guide from China International Travel Service. You are telling the foreign tourist the present conditions of traditional Chinese medicine. Colleges and research institutes along this line have been founded all over the country. Many Western medical colleges and general hospitals have set up research organizations to study traditional Chinese medicine and combine the Western and traditional medical schools. Quite a few doctors of Western medicine have learnt the theories and clinical practice of herbal medicine. Likewise, doctors of the traditional medical school have learned the techniques and means of scientific diagnosis and treatment. Many people love to be treated by Chinese traditional herbs for certain illnesses, such as the flu and some types of cancer.

role play4

Dialogue I Role Play

The dialogue might begin like this:






My recent experience with your herbal medicine still puzzles me.

Really? Why?

Imagine a few herbs and all the serious discomforts disappeared just like that!

You’re completely cured. Is that what you mean?

More than that, I feel great! And I began to get interested in your herbal medicine. Tell me...

dialogues2 1 1

Dialogue II Phrases, Sentences and Expressions

I don’t like spiders.

dialogues2 1 2

Dialogue II Phrases, Sentences and Expressions

dialogues2 2 1

Dialogue II Dialogue

A Chinese student and an American student talk about their similarities and differences.

Have you ever heard of Rudyard Kipling’s “East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet”?

Yes. Are you implying that you and I are very different in our ideas and habits?

No. To my great surprise, I’ve discovered we have much in common.




dialogues2 2 2

Dialogue II Dialogue

And Kipling was crudely Chauvinistic and showed unpleasant arrogance to peoples then ruled by Britain. I don’t like him.

I don’t like him either, though his early stories show his capacity to feel for the humble and the suffering.

I haven’t read any of those stories. To do him justice, I will in future. But on the whole he’s just too arrogant.

I quite agree with you. Neither of us likes Chauvinism. Both of us believe in equality among the peoples.





dialogues2 2 3

Dialogue II Dialogue

Speaking of similarities and differences, do you like the way we steam our bread instead of baking it? Most foreigners find it unique.

For me, either steamed or baked bread is OK, but neither of my American roommates likes it steamed.

Some Chinese feel the same way, especially those from the South. They like rice, three times a day.

Oh, I can't stand having rice all the time for my meals.

Neither can I. I hate having rice for every meal.






dialogues2 2 4

Dialogue II Dialogue


But sometimes I have to. So whenever I’m in Beijing, I have bread, steamed or baked, but in Shanghai, I have rice.

There are many other respects in which people from our two countries are different. For example, Chinese people like soccer. None of us have ever seen an American football match.

Strange to say, I don’t like either of those games. Baseball is my favorite game.

It’s my favorite too. Let’s go and watch a game one of these days.




dialogues2 note rudyard kipling
Dialogues2_Note_Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), English poet, novelist, and short story writer. He is known for his life-long glorification of British imperialism.

dialogues2 note and never
Dialogues2_Note_and never

and never the twain shall meet: and the two shall never meet

dialogues2 note chauvinistic


Chauvinism: 沙文主义

dialogues2 note his capacity
Dialogues2_Note_his capacity

his capacity to feel for the humble and the suffering — his capacity to sympathize with those who were humble and suffering. Some adjectives, when preceded by the definite article, are used as nouns, e.g., the humble and the suffering here. Adjectives used this way are plural in meaning and take plural verbs.

dialogues2 note to do him
Dialogues2_Note_To do him

To do him justice: to describe him properly and fairly

dialogues2 note none of
Dialogues2_Note_None of

None of us have ever seen ... — None is followed by either a singular or a plural verb when the reference is plural.

oral practice 1
Oral Practice_1

Dialogue II Oral Practice

Work in pairs, taking it in turns to ask for and give advice, using the following situations.


Work in threes. Use the cues, and extend the topic into a discussion.

Expand the discussion by adding a reason or an explanation.

Example: Breakfast

A: I had a boiled egg for breakfast.

B: So did I.

C: I had one too, because...

1) End of term examination

2) Didn’t sleep well last night

3) Summer holidays

oral practice 2


Oral Practice_2

Dialogue II Oral Practice


Work in small groups or pairs and find out what you each have in common, what all / both of you do / have done, and what none / neither of you does / has done. Find out what things you all do, what things none of you do, and what things a few of you do. Prepare a table and fill it in after talking.

Discuss in groups the similarities and differences between:

1) Chinese and English languages /customs / habits.

2) food / habits / weather in North and South China.

3) Your hometown and the town where you are studying.


sample 1
Sample 1

Dialogue II Oral practice

Sample for Topic 3:

1) Language:

sample 2
Sample 2

Dialogue II Oral practice


sample 3
Sample 3

Dialogue II Oral practice


reading main
Reading_ MAIN

Reading I

Pre-reading Questions

Background Knowledge


Comprehension Questions

Text Analysis

Reading II


Comprehension Questions

Text Analysis

reading 1 1
Reading 1_1

Reading I Pre-reading Questions

Do you think your parents have an important influence upon your growth? Can you give an example?

Which parent do you think has a stronger influence on you? How do you view the influence?

Do your parents often tell you what you should do or shouldn’t do? What’s your attitude toward these rules?

If you disagree with them on some problems, how do you deal with it?

What kind of parents are ideal ones in your mind?

If you become a mother or father, how do you think you will educate your child?

reading 1 2 1
Reading 1_2.1

Reading I Background Knowledge

Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth, or before, until adulthood. In the case of humans, it is usually done by the biological parents of the child in question, although governments and society take a role as well. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent blood relations. Others may be adopted, raised by foster care, or be placed in an orphanage. The goals of human parenting are debated. Usually, parental figures provide for a child's physical needs, protect them from harm, and impart in them skills and cultural values until they reach legal adulthood, usually after adolescence.

During adolescence children are beginning to form their identity and are testing and developing the interpersonal and occupational roles that they will assume as adults. Although adolescents look to

reading 1 2 2
Reading 1_2.2

Reading I Background Knowledge

peers and adults outside of the family for guidance and models for how to behave, parents remain influential in their development. Parents should make efforts to be aware of their adolescents’ activities, provide guidance, direction, and consultation. Adolescence can be a time of high risk for children, where newfound freedoms can result in decisions that drastically open up or close off life opportunities. Parental issues at this stage of parenting include dealing with “rebellious” teenagers, who didn’t know freedom while they were smaller. Parenting doesn’t stop when children grow up and age. Parents always remain to be parents for old children. Their relationship continues developing if both parties want to keep it or improve. The parenting issues may include the relationship with grandchildren and children-in-law.

reading 1 3 1
Reading 1_3.1

Reading I Text

The Parent in Us

There are psychologists who believe that the Parent is a large collection of “recordings” that is stored in a person’s brain. These recordings were made during the first five years of the person’s life. They are quite complete, and they contain a record of everything the little person heard or saw. Almost all of them can be recalled under the proper conditions.

A very important part of these recordings is the set of rules and laws that was imposed by the young person’s parents. These rules and laws helped shape the young person’s beliefs about himself or herself and about the world. And, as the child had no way to judge them, these rules and laws were recorded in his brain as “truth”.

reading 1 3 2
Reading 1_3.2

Reading I Text

What do these rules and laws say? Well, that depends upon what the parent said and did. Some common ones might be: “Be kind”, “Be careful”, “Don’t lie”, “Don’t steal”, “Mother loves you”, “Father is wise”, and “Work is good”. Such rules help socialize and comfort a child.

However, some of the other rules might be upsetting, demeaning or misleading: “Do it this way”, “Don’t do it that way”, “You’re bad”, “You’re stupid”, “You’re mean”, “You’re ridiculous”, “Never give a sucker an even break”. Such statements and rules can damage a person.

reading 1 3 3
Reading 1_3.3

Reading I Text

Every person’s parent recording is different. Each of us had a unique childhood. One psychologist simply points out two things: (1) each has a parent recording in our brain, and (2) this recording sometimes “comes on” and tells us what to do. It’s a voice out of the past, telling us what to do in the present.

This may give us problems. First, the information or rules in our parent may be incorrect or out of date. Second, our parent sometimes can influence us without our being aware of it. When that happens, we may do things or make decisions without fully considering more correct or up-to-date information.

reading 1 3 31
Reading 1_3.3

Reading I Text

As you work toward choosing your occupation, you may be sure that your parent will get into the act. You really can’t prevent this — in fact, you might not want to. The point is that you should be aware of this parent that is influencing you. Try to take advantage of its good advice, but also try to avoid being hurt by the bad.

reading notes demeaning
Reading_ Notes _ demeaning

demeaning: causing one to lose one’s sense of personal pride

reading notes never give
Reading_ Notes _ Never give …

“Never give a sucker an even break.” — “Never give a fool a fair chance to make things better.”

reading notes comes on
Reading_ Notes _comes on

“comes on” — “appears”

reading word impose
Reading_ Word_ impose

impose:v. to force the acceptance of (usually something

difficult or unwanted)


The bank has imposed very strict conditions for the repayment of the loan.

reading word shape
Reading_ Word_ shape

shape:v. Someone or something that shapes a situation or

an activity has a very great influence on the way it



Like it or not, our families shape our lives and make us what we are.

People’s political beliefs are often shaped by what they read in the newspapers.

reading word socialize
Reading_ Word_ socialize

socialize:v. When people, especially children, are

socialized, they are made to behave in a way

which is acceptable in their culture or society


From the time you are born you have to be socialized into being a good father.

reading word get into
Reading_ Word_ get into

get into: to start doing something habitually


He had gotten into the habit of walking home through the park.

reading word take advantage of
Reading_ Word_ take advantage of

take advantage of: to use a particular situation to do or

get what you want


I took advantage of the good weather to paint the shed.

questions 1

Reading I Comprehension Questions

1. What is meant by “the parent in us”?

“Parent” in this text means a large collection of “recordings” that is stored in people’s mind, which may have either positive or negative influence upon us.

2. During what stage of one’s life does his or her parent play the

most important role?

During the first five years of a person’s life his or her parent plays the most important role.

3. What is actually recorded in the brain of a child?

A very important part of the recordings is the set of rules and laws that was imposed by a child’s parents.

questions 2

Reading I Comprehension Questions

4. What makes a child believe that the rules imposed by his or her

parent are truth?

As they are quite young and inexperienced, they have no way to judge those rules and laws, so they just accept them as truth.

5. Why do some grown-ups behave so differently from others?

Grown-ups behave differently from others because each of them has a unique childhood and different parent recording.

6. What are possible problems that a particular parent recording

may create?

First, the rules in our parent may be incorrect or out of date; second, our parent sometimes can influence us without our being aware of it.

questions 3

Reading I Comprehension Questions

7. How should we treat “the parent in us” and guard against its

potential negative effects on us?

We should be aware of the parent that is influencing us and try to take advantage of its good advice and avoid being hurt by the bad.

8. What is the purpose of this essay?

The author intends to remind the readers to fully realize the influence parent recording may have on us and to make good use of it.

text analysis1
Text Analysis1

Reading I Text Analysis

Sum up the main idea of each paragraph in Reading I.

Para. 1 —

Psychological view of “Parent”: a collection of special recordings stored in a person’s brain

Para. 2 —

An important part of the recordings: rules and laws stored as truth

Para. 3 —

Positive effects of these rules and laws (1): socializing and comforting kids

text analysis2
Text Analysis2

Reading I Text Analysis

Sum up the main idea of each paragraph in Reading I.

Para. 4 —

Negative effects of these rules and laws (2): upsetting, demeaning, misleading and damaging a person

Para. 5 —

Influence of the recordings

Para. 6 —

Problems parent recording may bring to us and possible consequence

Para. 7

How to deal with such problems (as in the case of choosing your occupation)

text analysis3
Text Analysis3

Reading I Text Analysis


a. What can we know from the family tree?

From the family tree we can see that a surprising number of modern languages are related by way of a common ancestor.

b. Why modern English does not appear in the table?

This is because modern English, uniquely amongst Indo-European languages in the last thousand years, is a blend of French and Old English (with elements of Latin and Scandinavian) making it both Italic (or Romance) and Germanic. It is this blend which gives us such a large vocabulary and a flexibility to adapt to circumstances. The “mongrel” language continues to adapt while other languages try to keep out foreign influences.

reading2 1 1

Reading II Text

My Forever Valentine

The traditional holidays in our house when I was a child were spent timing elaborate meals around football games. My father tried to make pleasant chitchat and eat as much as he could during halftime. At Christmas he found time to have a cup or two of holiday cheer and don his hollyshaped bow tie. But he didn’t truly shine until Valentine’s Day.

I don’t know whether it was because work at the office slowed during February or because the football season was over. But Valentine’s Day was the time my father chose to show his love for the special people in his life. Over the years I fondly thought of him as my “Valentine Man”.

reading2 1 2

Reading II Text

My first recollection of the magic he could bring to Valentine’s Day came when I was six. For several days I had been cutting out valentines for my classmates. Each of us was to decorate a “mailbox” and put it on our desk for others to give us cards. That box and its contents ushered ina succession of bittersweet memories of my entrance into a world of popularity contests marked by the number of cards received, the teasing about boyfriends / girlfriends, and the tender care I gave to the card from the cutest boy in class.

reading2 1 21

Reading II Text

That morning at the breakfast table I found a card and a gift-wrapped package at my chair. The card was signed “Love, Dad”, and the gift was a ring with a small piece of red glass to represent my birthstone, a ruby. There is little difference between red glass and rubies to a child of six, and I remember wearing that ring with a pride that all the cards in the world could not surpass.

As I grew older, the gifts gave way to heart-shaped boxes filled with my favorite chocolates and always included a special card signed “Love, Dad”. In those years my thank-yous became more of a perfunctory response. The cards seemed less important, and I took for granted the valentine that would always be there. Long past the days of having a “mailbox” on my desk, I had placed my hopes and dreams in receiving cards and gifts from “significant others,” and “Love, Dad” just didn’t seem quite enough.

reading2 1 3

Reading II Text

If my father knew then that he had been replaced, he never let it show. If he sensed any disappointment over valentines that didn’t arrive for me he just tried that much harder to create a positive atmosphere, giving me an extra hug and doing what he could to make my day a little brighter.

My mailbox eventually had a rural address, and the job of hand delivering candy and cards was relegated to the U.S. Postal Service. Never in ten years was my father’s package late — nor was it on the Valentine’s Day eight years ago when I reached into the mailbox to find a card addressed to me in my mother's handwriting.

reading2 1 4

Reading II Text

It was the kind of card that comes in an inexpensive assortment box sold by a child going door-to-door to try to earn money for a school project. It was the kind of card you used to get from a grandmother or an aging aunt or, in this case, a dying father. It was the kind of card that put a lump in your throat and tears in your eyes because you knew the person no longer was able to go out and buy a real valentine. It was a card that signaled this would be the last you would receive from him.

The card had a photograph of tulips on the outside, and on the inside my mother had printed “Happy Valentine’s Day”. Beneath it, scrawled in barely legible hand-writing, was “Love, Dad”.

reading2 1 5

Reading II Text

His final card remains on my bulletin board today. It’s a reminder of how special fathers can be and how important it has been to me over the years to know that I had a father who continued a tradition of love with a generosity of spirit. Simple acts of understanding and an ability to express happiness over the people in his life.

Those things never die, nor does the memory of a man who never stopped being my valentine.

reading2 notes timing elaborate
Reading2_ Notes _timing elaborate…

timing elaborate meals ...: scheduling sumptuous meals

reading2 notes holiday cheer
Reading2_ Notes _holiday cheer

holiday cheer: drinks for holiday

reading2 notes don his
Reading2_ Notes _ don his …

don his holly-shaped bow tie: put on his bow tie 领结 which was in the shape of a holly leaf, a shrub widely used as a decoration during the Christmas season

reading2 notes valentine s day
Reading2_ Notes _ Valentine’s Day…

Valentine’s Day: February 14, a day for the exchange of valentines, i.e., a card of message or a gift sent by one person to another as a token of affection 情人节

reading2 notes cutting out
Reading2_ Notes _ cutting out

cutting out valentines: cutting out heart-shaped cards

reading2 notes ushered in
Reading2_ Notes _ushered in

ushered in: announced; brought forth


The discovery of oil ushered in an era of employment and prosperity.

reading2 notes popularity
Reading2_ Notes _popularity…

popularity contests marked by the number of cards received: contests to find out who were popular and who were not so popular by counting the number of valentine cards each person received

reading2 notes gave way to
Reading2_ Notes _gave way to

gave way to: were replaced by


After a while my anger gave way to depression.

reading2 notes my thank
Reading2_ Notes _my thank…

my thank-your became more of a perfunctory response: my thankfulness to my father was rather superficial, without showing genuine feelings of love and gratitude

perfunctory:adj. a perfunctory action is done quickly, and is only done because people expect it


She gave him a perfunctory smile.

The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.

reading2 notes took
Reading2_ Notes _took…

took (something) for granted: believed that (something) was certain to happen

reading2 notes significant others
Reading2_ Notes _significant others

“significant others”: other people who were more important. What other people do you think the author refers to?

reading2 notes my mailbox
Reading2_ Notes _My mailbox…

My mailbox eventually had a rural address. — The author had grown up and moved to live in the countryside.

reading2 word chitchat
Reading2_ Word _chitchat

chitchat:n. conversation about things that are not very


reading2 word shine
Reading2_ Word_ shine

shine:v. to be very good at something


He’s a pretty good student, but sports are where he really shines.

reading2 word recollection
Reading2_ Word_ recollection

recollection:n. something from the past that you



His earliest recollection was a great branch of lilac hanging outside the window.

reading2 word a succession of
Reading2_ Word_ a succession of

a succession of: a number of people or things of the same

kind following, coming or happening one

after another


A succession of visitors came to the door.

reading2 word surpass
Reading2_ Word_ surpass

surpass:v. to be even better or greater than someone or

something else


The results surpassed all our expectations.

The number of multiple births has surpassed 100,000 for the first time.

reading2 word replace
Reading2_ Word_ replace

replace:v. to remove someone from their job or something

from its place, and put a different person or thing



They replaced the permanent staff with part-timers.

reading2 word relegate to
Reading2_ Word_ relegate to

relegate to: to give someone or something a less important

position than before


Women tended to be relegated to typing and filing jobs.

Academic excellence seems to have been relegated to a role of secondary importance.

reading2 word put a lump in
Reading2_ Word_ put a lump in…

put a lump in your throat: to make someone feel as if

they want to cry


The scene where Laddie dies put a lump in my throat.

reading2 word signal
Reading2_ Word_ signal

signal:v. to make something clear by what you say or do


Both sides have signaled their willingness to start negotiations.

reading2 word scrawl
Reading2_ Word_ scrawl

scrawl:v. to write in a careless and untidy way, so that

your words are not easy to read


She scrawled a few words on the postcard.

Who’s scrawled all over the wall?

reading2 word reminder
Reading2_ Word_ reminder

reminder:n. something that makes you notice, remember,

or think about something


Occasional bursts of gunfire are a reminder that the battle isn’t over yet.

reading2 questions1
Reading2 _Questions1

Reading II Comprehension Questions

1. What was Valentine’s Day to the author’s father?

To the author’s father, Valentine’s Day was the time to show his love for the special people in his life. Over the years, he has always been her “Valentine Man”.

2. When was the first time that the author was impressed by her

father’s love for her?

The first time she was impressed by her father’s love for her was on Valentine’s Day when she was only six.

reading2 questions2
Reading2 _Questions2

Reading II Comprehension Questions

3. What happened on that occasion?

That morning, at the breakfast table she found a gift and a card signed “Love, Dad” at her chair. The gift was a ring with an imitation birthstone for her. She was very proud of the ring which, to her, surpassed all the cards in the world.

4. What did the father give the author when she grew older?

When she grew older, her father gave her chocolates in heart-shaped boxes and always a card signed “Love, Dad”.

5. After some time, was the author still interested in the cards her

father sent her?

As days went by, she expected to receive valentine cards and gifts from people other than her father. Her father, however, did not show any displeasure.

reading2 questions3
Reading2 _Questions3

Reading II Comprehension Questions

6. What did the father do to the author when she didn’t receive

the valentine cards she had expected from others?

When what the author had expected did not arrive, her father would always try hard to make her feel better.

7. Where did the author live later and how did her father send his

valentine cards and gifts to her then?

Eventually she moved to live in the country and her father had to send his valentine cards and gifts to her by post / mail. For ten years his packages had never been late.

reading2 questions4
Reading2 _Questions4

Reading II Comprehension Questions

8. When did the author receive the last valentine card from her


Eight years ago on Valentine’s Day she found in her mailbox a card addressed to her in her mother’s handwriting. It was the card from her dying father, and it was the last card she would receive from him. The card was signed “Love, Dad” in barely legible handwriting.

9. What did the author think of her father?

The author thinks that her father continues a tradition of love with a generosity of spirit, simple acts of understanding and an ability to express happiness over the people in his life. And her father, her forever Valentine, will always live in her memory.

reading2 text analysis1
Reading2 _Text analysis1

Reading II Text Analysis

Find out the synonyms in the text.

1. What type of writing is the text?

It is a piece of narrative writing.

2. What is the setting of this text?

Setting refers to when, where, and to whom the action in a narrative happened is often made clear at the beginning. This will provide the reader with a context, or circumstance to help him understand the whole narrative. At the beginning of this text, the author mentions such key words as “Valentine’s Day”, “in our house” and “my father”.

reading2 text analysis2
Reading2 _Text analysis2

Reading II Text Analysis

3. Structure analysis

Events in a narrative are usually related in chronological order, that is, in the order in which they occur, but sometimes it is preferable to start from the middle or even the end of the story with the event that is most important or most likely to arouse the reader’s interest, and then go back to the beginning by using flashbacks.

This text follows the chronological order, and draws students’ attention to some markers indicating the sequence of time:

Para. 1 —…when I was a child…

Para. 3 — …when I was six…

Para. 4 — That morning…

Para. 5 — As I grew older, …

Para. 7 — My mailbox eventually had a rural address, …

Para. 10 — His final card remains on my bulletin board today.

reading2 text analysis3
Reading2 _Text analysis3

Reading II Text Analysis

4. Point of view

A story can be told either in the first person or in the third person, each having its advantages and disadvantages. A first-person narrative may be more vivid and lifelike, because it gives the reader the impression that it is what the writer himself has seen or experienced. But the scope is rather limited, for it is difficult to narrate events that happen in different places at the same time. A third-person narrative may seem more objective, but not easy to put in good order things that happen to different people in different places.

In this text, the writer adopts the first person point of view, which makes the narration vivid and moving.

reading2 text analysis4
Reading2 _Text analysis4

Reading II Text Analysis

5. Character analysis

A writer’s primary concern in narration is its characters and characterization (describing the characters). In this text, the main character is “my father”, so we may ask students to analyze how the writer portrays her father so vividly. While reading the text, we may feel a passionate feeling fills the whole text from the very beginning to the end and the writer uses paralleled structures to highlight the sincere emotions. For instance, in Para. 6, the writer uses two conditional sentences “if my father knew then that…he never let it show” and “if he sensed any disappointment…he just tried…”, which shows how considerate and sensitive her father was. In Para. 8, there are four sentences in parallel: “it was the kind of card that…”, and here the text comes to a climax as it depicts how the writer cherishes the memory of her dear loving father.

exercise main
Exercise_ MAIN


Vocabulary Work

Spot Dictation


Guided Writing

Note Writing

Additional Reading Exercise

vocabulary a1

Exercises Vocabulary Work

  • Fill in each blank with a word beginning with the letter printed
  • below.

If you fall ill during your visit to Britain, you must get in touch with a doctor. Under the (1) N Health Service this (2) c

you nothing. Explain to the (3) r that you are a temporary (4) v to the country and she will give you a (5)

s form to fill (6) i .

If you are (7) t ill to move, you may phone his (8) s

for the consultation. Most doctors operate an (9) a

system, so that it is not (10) n to wait long at the surgery before (11) s the doctor.























vocabulary a2

Exercises Vocabulary Work

(12) W you see the doctor, you (13) d your symptoms to him and he (14) e you and makes (15) h diagnosis. Then he decides what (16) t you must follow. (17) U he gives you a prescription for (18) t or medicine which you must (19) t to a chemist’s shop. (20) I

you need special (21) t the doctor will (22) s you to see a (23) s at the local hospital, (24) b in Britain you must see the (25) o doctor before you can see a specialist.





























vocabulary b1






Exercises Vocabulary Work

B. Fill in each blank with the proper form of the given verb, using

a modal auxiliary where necessary.

Today, doctors (1) (do) much more for their patients than they could in the past. They (2) (have) a wider variety of drugs (3) (treat) diseases and illnesses of almost every kind. Some of these drugs (4) (come) from what (5) (call) medicinal plants. Other drugs (6) (come) from animals. Special drugs, (7) (call) antibiotics, (8) (obtain) from various moulds. Many kinds of diseases and infections (9)

(treat) with them. Alexander Fleming (10)

(discover) penicillin, the first antibiotic, in 1928. Penicillin (11) still (use) on a very wide scale.

can do





to treat



are called







are obtained



can be treated


vocabulary b2

Exercises Vocabulary Work

The majority of drugs today, however, (12) (be) synthetic. Some of them (13) (be) identical to natural substances (14) (find) in plants and animals. But many (15) (be) entirely new. Especially useful (16) (be) the sulpha drugs, which are used (17) (treat) pneumonia and other dangerous illnesses.

The most widely (18) (use) drug of all (19) (be) aspirin. It (20) (discover) in coal tar in 1838. Today it (21) (use) as a painkiller and (22) (make) synthetically on a very large scale.












to treat





was discovered


is used



is made

vocabulary c1

Exercises Vocabulary Work

C. Some antonyms can be formed by changing prefixes. Form

antonyms of the following words by changing the prefixes (use

de-, dis-, in-, or out-)

Example: export / import

1. ascend

3. extensive

5. construction

7. external

2. encourage

4. inside

6. increase

8. attach

















vocabulary c11

Exercises Vocabulary Work

D. Choose a word or phrase that best completes each of the

following sentences.

  • In contemporary society, dances often provide important occasions
  • for young people to .
  • A. entertain B. blend
  • C. socialize D. talk



2. To take part in that kind of social activity is generally considered as

to the participants.

A. inferior B. demeaning

C. notorious D. outrageous



vocabulary c2

Exercises Vocabulary Work

3. It is for people to destroy all the wild animals and plants just

to make room for their own development.

A. abnormal B. comical

C. incredible D. ridiculous



4. The name of the grass “wild rice” is because wild rice is not

related to common cultivated rice and it is usually much taller when

grown up.

A. meaningless B. misleading

C. mistaken D. misunderstood



vocabulary c3

Exercises Vocabulary Work

5. It is generally believed that coffee after being ground loses its

flavor within about a week unless it is specially packaged.

A. individual B. only

C. unequaled D. unique



6. These days, doctors may consult a computer to assist in diagnosis,

but still they must make the final decision and medication

by themselves.

A. decide B. dictate

C. prescribe D. subscribe



vocabulary c4

Exercises Vocabulary Work

7. A consumer who has been cheated or who has bought a product or

been offered a service that does not perform properly has a right to

seek a refund, replacement of the product, or other .

A. remedy B. resolution

C. settlement D. treatment



8. The brain and the spinal cord together the central nervous

system, which communicates with the rest of the body through the

outer nervous system.

A. make down B. make off

C. make out D. make up



vocabulary c5

Exercises Vocabulary Work

9. Taoism attempts to bring the individual into perfect harmony with

nature through a union with the Tao.

A. inexplicable B. mystical

C. puzzling D. strange



10. Brain waves are used to nervous system diseases and to

learn more about how the brain works.

A. define B. diagnose

C. disclose D. discover



spot dictation 1
Spot Dictation_1

Exercises Spot Dictation

Listen to the recording and fill in the blanks with the missing words.

A (1) was made of 1,230 families with children (2)

the age of (3) . The researchers (4) that 57 (5)

of the parents in that group were (6) , while 43 percent (7) to the new type. The (8) of the survey were not only (9) but rather surprising.

The first fact to (10) from the study was that the new (11)

parents had not (12) their view (13) family life. (14) they loved their children, they were not (15)

their lives around them (16) had been considered (17) in the the past. They were still (18) to pay as much





































spot dictation 2
Spot Dictation_2

Exercises Spot Dictation

attention to their (19) needs as to the needs of their (20) . They had (21) to the children that parents had a right to (22)

themselves and to have their own (23) . On the other hand, they were (24) to give the children the same (25) that they (26) for themselves. They treated them like adults. And they didn’t (27) their children to make (28)

for them later.





















translation a1

Exercises Translation

A.Translate the following sentences into English.

1. 他说他以前从未见过她,这不是真的。(which)

He said that he had never met her before, which was not true.

2. 他总是试图将自己的意愿强加于人,所以他几乎没有朋友。


He always tries to impose his own will on others; that’s why he has few friends.

3. 我无法核实她是否在说谎。(no way)

I have no way to find out whether she was telling a lie.

translation a2

Exercises Translation

4. 两年后,他一事无成地回到了他的家乡。(without)

Two years later, he went back to his hometown without having achieved any success.

5. 我利用今天的好天气出去钓鱼了。(advantage)

I took advantage of the fine weather today to go fishing.

6. 据说,孩提时的经历对于塑造一个人的性格起着非常重要的


It is said that childhood experiences play an important role in shaping a person’s character.

7. 当走钢丝演员(tightrope walker)力图重新获得平衡时,观众们


The audience watched with horror as the tightrope walker struggled to regain his balance.

translation b1

Exercises Translation

B. Translate the following passage into English.

塞缪尔•朗赫恩•克莱门斯(Samuel Langhorne Clemens)在19世纪中叶密西西比河边上的一个小镇上长大。他喜欢看汽船沿河行驶。当他十七岁时,他到东部纽约去了,但他从来没有忘记儿时的经历。二十一岁时他回到了老家并成了一名汽船的引水员(pilot),在河上生活他很高兴。

Samuel Langhorne Clemens grew up in a small town beside the Mississippi River around the middle of the nineteenth century.

He liked

to watch the steamboats sailing along the river.

When he was seventeen,

he went east to New York, but he never forgot his boyhood experiences.

At the age of twenty-one he returned home and became a steamboat pilot. He was very happy on the river.

translation b2

Exercises Translation

以后当他写小说时,他就用了马克•吐温(Mark Twain)这个笔名。这是汽船船员们使用的一个术语。许多人已经忘记了他的真实姓名是塞缪尔•克莱门斯。


Later, when he began to write stories, he used the name Mark Twain, which was a term used by river boatmen.

Lots of people have

forgotten that his real name was Samuel Clemens.

Mark Twain wrote many famous books, but he is remembered most for his stories about young boys.

guided writing a1
Guided Writing_A1

Exercises Guided Writing

  • In the following paragraph, the first and last sentences are missing. Listed below the paragraph are three alternatives for each. Working in groups of two or three, choose the most suitable. Tell your reasons.

We got to London at about 10 o’clock and they were at the station to meet us. We got into a taxi and chatted all the way to the part of the city where the museums are, as we had already decided that we wanted to go there most. Van went to the Science Museum with Uncle Peter, and I went to the Art Gallery with Aunt Jill, who explained lots of interesting things to me. Apparently Van had a good time too. When we met again, we were in high spirits, though tired and hungry. The Italian restaurant they took us to was nearby. The interior was tastefully decorated. We dined in a grand style. In the afternoon we

guided writing a2
Guided Writing_A2

Exercises Guided Writing

  • visited the Westminster Abbey, then walked along Oxford Street where we did a little shopping. After that we just had time to rush off back to the station.
  • 1. Choices for first sentence:
  • Van and I sometimes go to London to visit our relatives, see the
  • museums, and so on.
  • 2) There are so many places to go and so many things to see in
  • London, especially when you have relatives there.
  • 3) Last Saturday Van and I had a marvelous day in London with
  • Aunt Jill and Uncle Pete.
  • 2. Choices for last sentence:
  • Aunt Jill and Uncle Pete haven’t got any children of their own,
  • but they enjoyed our company as much as we did theirs.
guided writing a3
Guided Writing_A3

Exercises Guided Writing

2) So, as you can see, it was a very interesting day in the capital for

both of us.

3) That was the second time I’d been to London, the first time was

two years ago.

guided writing a4
Guided Writing_A4

Exercises Guided Writing

Reference version:

  • The first sentence (topic sentence) should be:
  • “Last Saturday Van and I had a marvelous day in London with Aunt Jill and Uncle Pete”.
  • Reasons for this choice are:
  • The passage gives the details of how they spent the day, so the first
  • (topic) sentence can’t be any other.
  • 2. The “they” in the first sentence of the passage refers to “Aunt Jill
  • and Uncle Pete” in the topic sentence and later on “Aunt Jill and
  • Uncle Pete” appear again.
  • 3. Alternative 1 does not refer to a specific day.
  • 4. Alternative 2 cannot be connected logically with the contents of the
  • paragraph.
guided writing a5
Guided Writing_A5

Exercises Guided Writing

Reference version:

  • The last (concluding) sentence should be:
  • “So, as you can see, it was a very interesting day in the capital for both of us”.
  • Reasons for this choice are:
  • This is a very good concluding sentence for the passage —
  • summing up what had happened as “a very interesting day in the
  • capital for both of us”.
  • 2. Alternative 1 has nothing to do with the contents of the given
  • passage.
  • 3. Alternative 3 also has nothing to do with the contents of the given
  • paragraph.
guided writing b1
Guided Writing_B1

Exercises Guided Writing

B. Write a paragraph of your own, using any one of the first and

last sentences provided in Exercise A but changing the proper


Now take Alternative 1 of the topic sentence and Alternative 1 of the concluding sentence and write a paragraph. The topic sentence is changed a little.

guided writing b2
Guided Writing_B2

Exercises Guided Writing

Reference version:

Tony and I sometimes take the children to London to visit our relatives, see the museums, and so on. Last Saturday we went there and stayed with Cousin Jo and Cousin Gladys, who lived in a big house in the West End. They took us to the famous museums and explained a lot of interesting things to the children. They also accompanied us to the Art Gallery where the children listened intently to Cousin Jo. The children were in high spirits, because they learned a lot in a short time. The Chinese restaurant where we went for our meals was nearby. The interior was tastefully decorated, and the children were awed to dine in grand style. The next day we visited the Westminster Abbey, where the children had never been, and then

guided writing b3
Guided Writing_B3

Exercises Guided Writing

Reference version:

walked along Oxford Street. We all had a grand time. Cousin Jo and Cousin Gladys haven’t had any children of their own, but they enjoyed our company as much as we did theirs.

note writing a1

Exercises Note Writing

  • The following sentences go together to form a note asking after one’s health. Work in groups of two or three, put them in the right order.

26 March, 20__

Dear Harold,

1. You have been weakened physically somehow.

2. Gary told me yesterday that you are down with the flu.

3. You do need a good rest.

4. To tell you the truth, I was a little surprised.

5. I’m sure that you’d be up and around very soon.

6. Take care and best regards!

7. You never used to be sick.

8. Then I recalled you’d been extraordinarily busy with your work



note writing a2

Exercises Note Writing

Reference version:

26 March, 20__

Dear Harold,

Gary told me yesterday that you are down with the flu. To tell you the truth, I was a little surprised. You never used to be sick. Then I recalled that you’d been extraordinarily busy with your work recently. You must have been weakened physically somehow. You do need a good rest. I’m sure you’ll be up and around very soon. Take care and best regards!


note writing b1

Exercises Note Writing

B. The following sentences go together to form a note asking after one’s health. Put them in the right order.

21 September, 20__

Dear Jiaying,

1. Is he still in the hospital?

2. Is there anything I can do to help?

3. I met Liming yesterday.

4. I heard that with good care patients like him can recover soon.

5. Give my best regards to your grandpa.

6. Is he home?

7. She told me your grandpa had had a stroke.

8. This news greatly saddened me.

9. Please don’t hesitate to ask.



note writing b2

Exercises Note Writing

Reference version:

21 September, 20___

Dear Jiaying,

I met Liming yesterday and she told me your grandpa had had a stroke. This news greatly saddened me. Is he still in the hospital or is he home? I heard that with good care patients like him can recover soon. Is there anything I can do to help? Please don’t hesitate to ask. Give my best regards to your grandpa.



additional reading 1
Additional Reading_1

Exercises Additional Reading Exercise

Translate the following sentences into English by using the cues given in the brackets.


The insurance company will recompense his loss in this blaze.


John’s parents vetoed his plan to buy a motor bike.

3. 许多人已经提交了对警方的正式投诉书。(file)

A number of people have filed formal complaints against the police.

additional reading 2
Additional Reading_2

Exercises Additional Reading Exercise



With a little more forethought we could have bought the house we really wanted.


His opposition for several times served only to strengthen our resolve.

6. 那对恋人落在后面,为的是两人好单独在一起谈谈他们的美好

未来。(drop back)

The two lovers dropped back so as to be alone to talk about their bright future.