As you might have guessed, the next topic we are going to examine is……. Memory • The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. So what was the point of the seven dwarves exercise?
Turn your paper over. Now pick pick out the seven dwarves. Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy
Seven Dwarves Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
The Memory process • Encoding—Selective Attention • Storage • Retrieval
Encoding • The processing of information into the memory system. Getting a girls name Typing info into a computer
Spacing Effect • We encode better when we study or practice over time. • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!
In your notes…. List the U.S. Presidents
Serial Positioning Effect • Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Presidents Recalled If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would probably look something like this. AKA--Primacy vs. Recency Effect
Types of Encoding • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words--BEST • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. • Echoic Memory— 2nd best • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images. • Iconic Memory— 3rd best
Iconic Memory • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting only about a second. • We also have an echoic memory for auditory stimuli. If you are not paying attention to someone, you can still recall the last few words said in the past three or four seconds.
Self-Reference Effect • An example of how we encode meaning very well. • The idea that we remember things (like adjectives) when they are used to describe ourselves. Peg-word system
Tricks to Encode • Use imagery: mental pictures Mnemonic Devices use imagery. Like my “peg word” system or…. “My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas.“ Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Give me some more examples…. Links to examples of mnemonic devices.
Storage • The retention of encoded material over time. Trying to remember her name when you leave the party. Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.
Retrieval • The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Seeing her the next day and calling her the wrong name (retrieval failure). Finding your document and opening it up.
Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise? Recall v. Recognition • With recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank or essay tests). • With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests). • Which is easier?
Retrieval Cues • Things that help us remember. • We often use a process called priming(the activation of associations in our memory) to help us retrieve information.
PRIMING EFFECT • Priming effect occurs when people respond faster or better to an item if a similar item preceded it. • For the most part, the priming effect is considered involuntary and is most likely an unconscious phenomenon. The priming effect basically consists of repetition priming and semantic priming.
Context Effects • It helps to put yourself back in the same context you experienced (encoded) something. • If you study at a desk at home, you will probably score higher because you take tests at a desk here at school.
Effects on Memory • Mood Congruent Memory--The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood. • If you are depressed, you will more likely recall sad memories from you past. • State Dependent Memory—recalling events encoding during a certain state of consciousness. • If you are sleepy, and remember an appt. you need to write it down because you won’t remember it until you are sleepy again.
Types of Memory According to the Three Box/Info Processing Model • Sensory Memory: • Short-Term Memory • Long-Term Memory • Opposing theory is the Levels of Processing Model which says we tend to remember things that we deeply or elaboratively process.
Sensory Memory • The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. • Stored just for an instant, and most gets unprocessed. Example: If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the beginning of a sentence in order to understand the sentence as a whole. These words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory.
Storage and Sensory Memory George Sperling played one of three tones (each tome corresponding with a row of letters). Then he flashed the letters for less than a second and the subjects were able to identify the letters for the corresponding row,
Short-Term Memory • Memory that holds a few items briefly. • Seven digits (plus of minus two). • The info will be stored into long-term or forgotten. How do you store things from short-term to long-term? You must repeat things over and over to put them into your long-term memory. *****Rehearsal
Storage and Short-Term Memory • Lasts usually between 3 to 12 seconds. • Can store 7 (plus or minus two) chunks of information. • We recall digits better than letters. Short-term memory exercise.
Chunking—Mnemonic Device • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. • Often it will occur automatically. 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Chunk- from Goonies Do these numbers mean anything to you? 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 how about now?
Working Memory(Modern day STM) • Another way of describing the use of short-term memory is called working memory.
Long-Term Memory • The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. At 5 years old, Rajan would memorize the license plates of all of his parents’ guests (about 75 cars in ten minutes). He still remembers the plate numbers to this day.
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) • The current theory of how our long-term memory works. • Memory has a neural basis. • LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Example--If you are trying to remember a phone number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of rehearsal (but for our neurons).
Flashbulb Memory • A clear moment of an emotionally significant moment or event, which is easy to recall. • Stress seems to enhance LTM. Where were you when? 1. You heard about 9/11 2. You heard about the death of a family member 3. When Obama became President.
Types of LTM • Episodic Memory— Episodes of your life • Explicit Memory • Semantic Memory— Just the facts/info • Explicit Memory • Procedural Memory— Things you know how to do—usually non- declaritive • Implicit Memory
Eidetic or Photographic Memory • Alexandra Luria studied a patient who would repeat a list of 70 letters or digits. • The patient could do it backwards and recall it up to 1.5 years later!!!! • It is like you take a picture of information and store it in your brain.
The Hippocampus • Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory. • Left = Verbal • Right = Visual and Locations • The hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which is our brain.
Encoding Failure We fail to encode the information. It never has a chance to enter our LTM.
Test Your Memory Which is the real penny?