Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper
Difficulty of Task • Was the exercise easy or difficult. It depends on what factors? • Whether you like Disney movies • how long ago you watched the movie • how loud the people are around you when you are trying to remember
As you might have guessed, the next topic we are going to examine is……. Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. So what was the point of the seven dwarves exercise?
The Memory process • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval
Encoding • The processing of information into the memory system. Typing info into a computer Getting a girls name at a party
Encoding Getting the information in our heads!!!! How do you encode the info you read in our text?
Two ways to encode information • Automatic Processing • Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing • Unconscious encoding of incidental information. • You encode space, time and word meaning without effort. • Things can become automatic with practice. For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you will encode the meaning of what I am saying to you without any effort.
Effortful Processing • Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. • Rehearsal is the most common effortful processing technique. • Through enough rehearsal, what was effortful becomes automatic.
Things to remember about Encoding • The next-In-Line effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next. • Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered. • Taped info played while asleep is registered by ears, but we do not remember it.
Spacing Effect • We encode better when we study or practice over time. • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!
Take out a piece of paper and…. List the U.S. Presidents
Serial Positioning Effect • Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Presidents Recalled If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would probably look something like this.
Encoding exercise Types of Encoding • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.
Self-Reference Effect • An example of how we encode meaning very well. • The idea that we remember things (like adjectives) when they are used to describe ourselves. Peg-word system
Tricks to Encode • Use imagery: mental pictures Mnemonic Devices use imagery. Like my “peg word” system or…. "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums." Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Give me some more examples…. Links to examples of mnemonic devices.
Chunking • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. • Often it will occur automatically. 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Chunk- from Goonies Do these numbers mean anything to you? 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 how about now?
Chunking 1,3 and 5 make little sense to us. But when we chunk the characters differently (2,4,6) they become easy to remember.
Storage • The retention of encoded material over time. Trying to remember her name when you leave the party. Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.
Storage How we retain the information we encode
Storage and Sensory Memory George Sperling played one of three tones (each tome corresponding with a row of letters). Then he flashed the letters for less than a second and the subjects were able to identify the letters for the corresponding row,
Iconic Memory • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting only about a second. • We also have an echoic memory for auditory stimuli. If you are not paying attention to someone, you can still recall the last few words said in the past three or four seconds.
Storage and Short-Term Memory • Lasts usually between 3 to 12 seconds. • Can store 7 (plus or minus two) chunks of information. • We recall digits better than letters.
Storage and Long-Term Memory • We have yet to find the limit of our long-term memory. • For example, Rajan was able to recite 31,811 digits of pi. • At 5 years old, Rajan would memorize the license plates of all of his parents’ guests (about 75 cars in ten minutes). He still remembers the plate numbers to this day.
How does our brain store long-term memories? • Memories do NOT reside in single specific spots of our brain. • They are not electrical (if the electrical activity were to shut down in your brain, then restart- you would NOT start with a blank slate).
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) • The current theory of how our long-term memory works. • Memory has a neural basis. • LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. In other words, if you are trying to remember a phone number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of rehearsal (but for our neurons).
Stress and Memory • Stress can lead to the release of hormones that have been shown to assist in LTM. • Similar to the idea of Flashbulb Memory.
The Hippocampus • Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory. • Left = Verbal • Right = Visual and Locations • The hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which is our brain.
Retrieval • The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Seeing her the next day and calling her the wrong name (retrieval failure). Finding your document and opening it up.
Retrieval How do we recall the information we thought we remembered? Lets Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!
Recall versus Recognition Lazy Smurf or Lethargic Smurf I probably cannot recall the Smurfs, but can I recognize them? Papa Smurf or Daddy Smurf Handy Smurf or Practical Smurf Brainy Smurf or Intellectual Smurf Clumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf
Retrieval Cues • Things that help us remember. • We often use a process called priming (the activation of associations in our memory) to help us retrieve information.
PRIMING EFFECT • Priming effect occurs when people respond faster or better to an item if a similar item preceded it. • For the most part, the priming effect is considered involuntary and is most likely an unconscious phenomenon. The priming effect basically consists of repetition priming and semantic priming.
Repetition Priming 1. Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize a face or word if you have recently seen that same face or word.
Semantic Priming 2. Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize someone or word if you have just seen someone or a word closely associated.
Context Effects • It helps to put yourself back in the same context you experienced (encoded) something. • If you study on your favorite chair at home, you will probably score higher if you also took the test on the chair.
Retrieval • Recall • often guided by partial info • Tip-Of-The-Tongue-Phenomenon • Reinstating the context of an event can often enhance retrieval • State Dependent Retrieval • Recall may be dependent on certain cues from our physical states • Memories are sketchy reconstructions of the past that may be distorted • Source Monitoring Error • occurs when a memory derived from one source is attributed to another source