The World of Islam. Chapter 6. STANDARD WHI.8a The student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic civilization from about 600 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Islam; Origins of Islam • Muhammad, the Prophet
b) assessing the influence of geography on Islamic economic, social, and political development, including the impact of conquest and trade;
Geographic influences on the origin and spread of Islam
• Diffusion along trade routes from Mecca and Medina
• Expansion despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers
• Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia, facilitated by weak Byzantine and Persian empires
Geographic influences on economic, social, and political development
• Political unity of the first Muslim empire was short-lived.
• Arabic language spread with Islam and facilitated trade across Islamic lands.
• Slavery was not based on race.
c) identifying historical turning points that affected the spread and influence of Islamic civilization, with emphasis on the Sunni-Shi’a division, and the Battle of Tours;
Historical turning points
• Death of Ali - Sunni-Shi’a division
• Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus
• Islamic capital moved to Baghdad
• Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours
• Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols
d) citing cultural and scientific contributions and achievements of Islamic civilization.
Cultural contributions and achievements
• Architecture (Dome of the Rock)
• Arabic alphabet
• Translation of ancient texts into Arabic
Scientific contributions and achievements
• Arabic numerals (adapted from India, including zero)
• Expansion of geographic knowledge
Arose in the Arabian Peninsula and influenced Western Asia and beyond.
They were a nomadic, Semitic-speaking people who lived in the arid climate of the Arabian Peninsula.
The environment was harsh, they were organized into tribes and were led by a sheikh who was chosen from a council of elders. The tribes were independent, but worked together
-Most Early Arabs were polytheistic,
many recognized a chief, or supreme
god who they called Allah which is
Arabic for “God.”
-Allah was symbolized by a sacred stone, each tribe had their own stone, but there was one central stone called the Black stone which was placed in the shrine called the Kaaba.
-This shrine was located in the city of Makkah (Mecca) in what is now Saudi Arabia.
The Arabian Peninsula became an important center for trade. The city of Mecca became rich from the caravan trade traffic which passed through the area.
The domestication of the camel enabled traffic to cross the deserts and as empires grew up in the region trade increased greatly.
As the merchants became rich from the Caravan traffic the life of the poor people of the area suffered.
Muhammad was born in Makkah in present-day Saudi Arabia to a merchant family. His parents died when he was young and he ended up living with his uncle who was a merchant and he became a caravan manager.
Over time, he found the richness and corruption of the merchants and townspeople to be troubling.
He decided to visit the hills to meditate. Muslims believe that while he was meditating in the hills he received revelations from God through the Angel Gabriel.
Muslims believe the Angel Gabriel told Muhammad to recite what he heard, it was believed that Allah had already revealed himself through Moses and Jesus, but now had a final revelation for man.
This final revelation became the religion of Islam. Which means submission to the will of God.
The revelations to Muhammad were written down by scribes and became known as TheQuran, which is the holy book of Islam.
The Quran contains ethical
guidelines and laws by which
Muslims (followers of Islam)
should live their lives.
The Quran is written in Arabic, which was the language of Muhammad.
The Quran is considered to only be true when it is written in its original language. Translations are thought to lose the true meaning of the original words which are believed to be a direct revelation from God.
The Muslim observance of Ramadan is to commemorate the recording of the holy text.
After Muhammad received his revelation he went to his wife Khadija, she was his first convert to the new religion.
He began to try to convert the people of Makkah to his message, but he was unsuccessful. After three years he was forced to go to the city of Yathrib, which later became Medina. This flight, or migration, is known as the Hijrah and marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. This was in the year 622 CE.
In Yathrib, renamed Medina (which means the city of the prophet) Muhammad was accepted and gained followers.
One of the groups which converted to the new religion of Islam were the Bedouins who were desert Arabs. This new community became the first to practice the religion.
After several years, Muhammad became both a spiritual and political leader, there was not an idea of the separation of church and state. He raised an army and conquered the city of Makkah.
After Muhammad took the city of Makkah he cleansed the Kaaba of idols and dedicated it to Allah, who he taught was the one true God.
All Muslims are encouraged to make a pilgrimage to Makkah known as the Hajj at least once in their life if they are physically and financially able.
Islam is Monotheistic, like Judaism and Christianity.
Islam teaches a belief in an afterlife, those who hope to achieve this afterlife must submit to the will of Allah.
Muslims do not believe the Muhammad was divine, they believe that he was a man.
Islam is seen not just as a religion, but as a way of life.
Muslims believe that Islam was God’s final revelation for mankind. Muslims feel that in order to achieve salvation that they must obey the will of Allah, or God.
In order to do this they must follow the five major principles of Islam known as the Five Pillars of Islam.
Muslims must fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan which celebrates the recording of the Quran.
The Arab Empire and its Successors
The next two Caliphs were both assassinated.
After that Muhammad’s son-in-law
but five years later
he too was assassinated.
By 750 the Muslim advance came to an end. The southern and eastern Mediterranean and parts of the old Roman Empire were now Muslim territory.
Dome of the Rock
Rulers of provinces began to break away and establish independent kingdoms.
The Turks were originally a nomadic people who converted to Islam and were great soldiers in the Abbasid caliphate.
Women in these societies had to have a male guardian and parents arranged marriages for their children.
In the Quran the Hijab has different meanings it can mean a curtain or partition dividing rooms--in other verses it is a sacred divide between the earth and holy, god and human, light and dark, and men and women.
The Hijab covers the head and Neck
The Chador covers the full body with a head scarf underneath.
The covering that women wear varies from country to country.
The Burka (Burqa) is a veil that completely covers the face and body.
In present-day Iraq, it was the largest mosque at the time.
It covered 10 acres.
Most famous section is the minaret, or tower, it is from this tower that the Muezzin, or crier calls the faithful to prayer five times a day.