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CARDINAL SURVEYS COMPANY. Eliminate the Guesswork!. CARDINAL SURVEYS COMPANY. lnjection Profile School. If you don’t know where its going, it’s a disposal, not a flood. Injection Profiles - Why?. Determine where fluids are going. Check mechanical integrity of well bore.

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CARDINAL SURVEYS COMPANY


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    1. CARDINAL SURVEYS COMPANY Eliminate the Guesswork! Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    2. CARDINAL SURVEYS COMPANY lnjection Profile School If you don’t know where its going, it’s a disposal, not a flood. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    3. Injection Profiles - Why? • Determine where fluids are going. • Check mechanical integrity of well bore. • Verify conformance to formation porosity. • Locate channels. • Check perforations. • Check fill. • Find scale and build-up. • Discover holes or unreported perforations. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    4. Injection Profiles - Objectives: • SAFELY • Accurate and Quantative • Detect Mechanical Problems • Detect Channels • Minimize Risk to Well • Perform economically without sacrificing quality. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    5. Injection Profile Log - Components • Radioactive Tracers • Spinner Logs • Temperature Logs • Caliper Logs • Collar Logs Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    6. Injection Profile Log - Logs • Injecting Temperature Log • Two Radioactive Tracer Logs • The Intensity Profile • Series of Stationary Velocity Measurements • Channel Checks • Packer Check • Shut-In Temperature Logs • Cross-Flow Checks • Caliper Log Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    7. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Review well records. • Prepare a wellbore diagram: • Current condition of the well. • Significant past factors and changes. • Well bore equipment (depths, i.d.): • Casing, liners, tubing, packer(s), plugs, casing shoe(s). • Downhole control valves (mandrels). Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    8. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Well configuration: • Perforations. • Open hole intervals. • Plugged or squeezed zones • Known thief zones, channels, and other known areas of possible fluid loss should be indicated. • Well head: • Height. • Connection required. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    9. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Unusual conditions: • Remote injection control valves. • High pressures (above 2000 PSI). • Safety hazards (hydrogen sulfide). • Restrictions or modifications to normal procedures. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    10. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Lease and well data: • Maps with locations, roads, and plants. • Tabulation of injection rates and pressures. • Depth correlation logs (primary log, gamma ray, collar log). • Previous profile(s). Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    11. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Additional equipment: • Breathing apparatus. • H2S monitors. • Fluid containment systems. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    12. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Preparation of the well for survey: • Tubing or tail pipe 50' above the top perforation or shoe. • Full opening valve. • Stable rate 48 hours. • Slick line sinker bar run and T.D. check. • Rate meter and pressure gauge. • Install crown valve • Test valves and tree. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    13. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator • Information needed at the well site: • Maps with locations, roads, and plants. • Tabulation of injection rates and pressures. • Depth correlation logs (primary log, gamma ray, collar log). • Well diagrams. • Previous profile(s). • MSDS as required. • Well history and recent workovers. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    14. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Service Company • Proper pressure control equipment: • Wireline blow out preventer. • Tool trap. • Full-opening bleed off valve (2 in.). • Pressure control head. • Lubricator risers. • (All equipment must be rated and tested to the expected working pressure limit.) • Well head connections. • Tool selection: • Tool size (smallest internal diameter in well.) Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    15. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Service Company • Tool configuration: • Collar locator. • Radioactive ejector. • Detector(s). • Caliper. • Temperature tool. • Radio isotope: • Iodine (I-131), solution based on the type of fluid being injected. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    16. Injection Profiles - Preparation: Service Company • Documentation and information needed at the well site: • Company Safety Policy and Procedures manual. • Material Safety Data sheets. • Radiation License • Document of Awareness (signed by Operator.) • MSDS for service company products. • Maps with locations, roads, and plants. • Tabulation of injection rates and pressures. • Depth correlation logs (primary log, gamma ray, collar log). • Well diagrams. • Previous profile(s). • MSDS from operator as required. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    17. Injection Profiles - Procedures: Rig Up and Run In • Conduct pre job radiation level surveys. • Install mast unit and lubricator. • Load radioisotope ejector. • Loaded with radioactive material according to Cardinal Surveys Company Ejector Loading Procedures. • Record tool serial numbers. • Connect tracer survey tools. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    18. Injection Profiles - Procedures: Rig Up and Run In • Shut off injection. • Follow LOCKOUT/TAGOUT procedures as required. • Connect lubricator. • Lower tools into well. • Start and check injection rate. • Record average reading and meter make and model. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    19. Logging Tools • Scintillation Detector • 16” to 24” radius of investigation • Geiger Detector is 80% less sensetive. • O-ring sealed Ejector Port • Temperature Tool • 0.1 to 0.25 degrees F resolution Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    20. Injection Profiles - Procedures: Logging Procedure • Logging procedure: • Injecting temperature survey. • Gamma-ray and collar log. • Correlate to log provided. • Gamma-ray base log. • (Reduced sensitivity) • Caliper survey. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    21. Injection Profiles - Procedures: Logging Procedure • Logging procedure: • Intensity profile. • (One “Slug” of radioactive material.) • Velocity profile. • (Multiple stationary readings.) • Downward channel check, if applicable. • No Flow check, if applicable. • Upward channel check (shoe or top perf.) Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    22. Injection Profiles - Procedures: Logging Procedure • Logging procedure: • Packer check. • Tubing drop shots. • (Verifies meter rate.) • Check injection rate and record. • Shut-in temperature surveys as required. • Crossflow checks. • (Necessary to interpret Shut-in Temps.) Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    23. Injection Profiles - Procedures: Rig Down • Remove tools from the well and bring into lubricator. • Shut well in. • Rig down. • Return the well to injection. • Monitor injection rate and pressure. • Report anomalies. • Inspect well head, location, etc. • Clean up. Report unsafe conditions or problems. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    24. Calculations and Interpretations:Volumetric Flow Rates • Volume= PI x Dia^2 / 4 * L • Volumetric Flow = Vol / Time Diameter Length Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    25. Calculations and Interpretations:Application of Volumetric Rates • Tracer Elapsed Time Runs • Stationary Velocities • Spinner Flow Meters • Tubing Drop Shots • Crossflow Checks • Production Log Velocities Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    26. Calculations and Interpretations:Caliper Log - Required! In standard 5 1/2” Casing: • A 1/4” buildup = 11% Error! • A 1” buildup = 39% Error! Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    27. Calculations and Interpretations:Injecting Temperature Survey. • First pass - Logging down (always) - First time to tag up • The logging speed is 50-60 feet per minute. • The well is logged once from 200 feet above the injection packer to L.T.D. while the well is injecting. Note: Due to diurnal-nocturnal temperature variations of injection fluid, it may be advantageous to defer the injecting temperature survey until immediately prior to well shut in. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    28. Injection ProfilesExample Calculations • I.D. = 4.96” • Reaction Time = 26.5 sec. • Tool Spacing = 5 ft. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    29. Injection ProfilesExample Calculations • I.D. = 4.96” • Reaction Time = 26.5 sec. • Tool Spacing = 5 ft. • Calculated velocity = 0.189 ft/sec • Calculated volumetric flow = 0.0252 cu.ft./sec • Flow = 388 BPD Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    30. Calculations and Interpretations:Injecting Temperature Survey. • Temperature surveys are always run down (going in the hole). • The initial temperature survey should indicate: • Well total depth (when corrected to depth control logs). • Possibility of fluid loss below L.T.D. (log total depth), or bottom of injection loss. • Mechanical/well bore problems preventing movement of tool. • Decision to proceed! Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    31. Injection Temperature

    32. Calculations and Interpretations:Correlation Log • Gamma Ray and Collar Log • For Depth Correlation Purposes • Earlier / Original Logs Better • Avoid Depth Creep • Good Quality Copies Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    33. Calculations and Interpretations:Intensity Profile • Tool configuration - one scintillation detector located below the ejector. • Readings are made versus depth. • Radioactive material is ejected ("slug") above the perforated or open hole interval. • Tools lowered approx. 20 ft. below slug, and logged through slug ("drag run"). Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    34. Calculations and Interpretations:Intensity Profile • Repeat and catch slug at frequency adequate to determine fluid loss. • Slug logged at the constant speed. • Repeat until slug stops moving or is lost to formation. • Loss calculations from area under curve Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    35. Calculations and Interpretations:Intensity Profile • Quantified loss profile • Bottom of injection movement (or loss below L.T.D.) • Possible channeling outside casing • Possible holes in pipe or other mechanical problems. • Independent of wellbore diameter changes. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    36. Intensity Profile (“Drag Run”)

    37. Calculations and Interpretations: Velocity Profile - Velocity Shots • Data are recorded versus time. The tool string remains stationary • Eject a burst of radioactive material ("slug"). • The transit time of the slug moving to the detector is recorded. • Terminate and verify after 5 minutes. • Repeat until zone is profiled. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    38. Calculations and Interpretations: Velocity Profile - Velocity Shots • No movement is a “No Flow Slug” • Channel checks (upward and downward) • 100% stations (normally three 100%). • Placed between the packer and the top perforation or top of the open hole interval. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    39. Calculations and Interpretations: Velocity Profile - Velocity Shots • Channel checks - special velocity shots. • Ejected into flow. • Detector may be moved to locate or follow a channel. • Downward channel check prior to No Flow. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    40. Calculations and Interpretations: Velocity Profile - Velocity Shots • Calculations of the percent loss are performed using transit time between the ejector tool and the gamma detector. • Calculations convert linear velocities into volumetric flow rates in conjunction with caliper data (well bore diameters). Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    41. Velocity Shot Example Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    42. Velocity Shot Example Channel Check (No Channel Indicated)

    43. Calculations and Interpretations:Tubing Drop Shots • In tubing above packer. • Tool positioned ahead of slug 4 - 6 times. • Velocity in tubing converted to volumetric flow rate. • Used to verify injection rate. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    44. Calculations and Interpretations:Shut In Temperatures • The number of runs and timing depends on well conditions. • Well and lubricator MUST be fully sealed. • Indicates long term storage of injected fluid volumes. • Indicates external channels • Radius of investigation - deep formation. • Cross flow to verify fluid movement. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    45. Temperature Logs can not distinguish between events occurring inside, or outside the wellbore • Injection Temperatures show the bottoms of fluid losses and major velocity changes • Shut-in Temperatures indicate the tops of events and give a relative magnitude of fluid storage • Injecting and Shut-in logs merging indicate the absolute bottom of fluid movement

    46. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    47. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    48. Calculations and Interpretations:Crossflow Checks • Multiple slugs across interval. • Recorded vs. depth. • Runs approx. 5 min. • Crossflow quantified by slug peak movement vs. time. • Top slug should not move. • Good for very slow rate wells. Injection Profile School - Cardinal Surveys Company

    49. Crossflow Check