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Streams and Rivers. Streams and Rivers Definitions. Tributary: A stream that runs into another stream or river River System: A river and all of its tributaries Watershed: includes all of the land that drains into the river.

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streams and rivers definitions
Streams and RiversDefinitions
  • Tributary: A stream that runs into another stream or river
  • River System: A river and all of its tributaries
  • Watershed: includes all of the land that drains into the river
streams and rivers continued
Streams and Rivers Continued
  • Oxbow: a bow-shaped bend in a river
  • Oxbow Lake: a bow-shaped lake formed in a former channel of a river.
deltas
Deltas

Delta: a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging branches of the mouth of a river, often triangular

Alluvial Deposit: clay, silt or gravel carried by rushing streams and deposited where the stream slows down

characteristics of streams and rivers
Characteristics of Streams and Rivers
  • Meander: to take a winding or indirect course
  • Velocity: The distance that water travels in a given amount of time.
  • Gradient: The slope of a stream

(vertical distance/horizontal distance)

characteristics continued
Characteristics Continued
  • Discharge: the volume of water that passes a certain point in a given amount of time
  • Channel: The path through which the water flows. The size and shape effects the velocity- the more sources of friction the slower the river travels
water velocity
Water Velocity

Streams flow fastest in the middle, just below the surface

The surface is slower because air provides a little friction

The bottom is slower because the ground provides friction

The sides are slower because the edge/shore provides friction

v shaped valleys
V-Shaped Valleys

Most youthful river valleys are V-shaped

V-shaped valleys are found in regions where there is enough rain to erode the sides of the valley

visualizations
Visualizations
  • How Sediment is Transported
  • Meanderings
slide20

Erosion occurs on the outside of the bends where the water is moving the fastest

  • Deposition occurs on the inside of the bends where the water is moving the slowest
erosion by wind
Erosion by Wind
  • When small, loose sediments like sand are available, erosion by wind is possible
  • Arid regions are the most common places for wind erosion to take place
slide24

Sand dunes are hills of sand deposited by wind

  • Found wherever there are strong winds and loose sand
  • Have long, gentle slope on windward side
  • Have shorter, steep slope on leeward side