streams and rivers n.
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Streams and Rivers

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  1. Streams and Rivers

  2. Streams and RiversDefinitions • Tributary: A stream that runs into another stream or river • River System: A river and all of its tributaries • Watershed: includes all of the land that drains into the river

  3. Floodplain: a nearly flat area along a stream or river that is naturally subject to flooding.

  4. Streams and Rivers Continued • Oxbow: a bow-shaped bend in a river • Oxbow Lake: a bow-shaped lake formed in a former channel of a river.

  5. Deltas Delta: a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging branches of the mouth of a river, often triangular Alluvial Deposit: clay, silt or gravel carried by rushing streams and deposited where the stream slows down

  6. Characteristics of Streams and Rivers • Meander: to take a winding or indirect course • Velocity: The distance that water travels in a given amount of time. • Gradient: The slope of a stream (vertical distance/horizontal distance)

  7. Rivers with Many Meanders

  8. Formation of a Cutoff and Oxbow Lake

  9. Characteristics Continued • Discharge: the volume of water that passes a certain point in a given amount of time • Channel: The path through which the water flows. The size and shape effects the velocity- the more sources of friction the slower the river travels

  10. Diagram

  11. Water Velocity Streams flow fastest in the middle, just below the surface The surface is slower because air provides a little friction The bottom is slower because the ground provides friction The sides are slower because the edge/shore provides friction

  12. From Above From WithinX marks the area of highest velocity

  13. ESRT (pg 6)

  14. V-Shaped Valleys Most youthful river valleys are V-shaped V-shaped valleys are found in regions where there is enough rain to erode the sides of the valley

  15. The Yellowstone River Is an Example of a V-Shaped Valley

  16. Visualizations • How Sediment is Transported • Meanderings

  17. Erosion occurs on the outside of the bends where the water is moving the fastest • Deposition occurs on the inside of the bends where the water is moving the slowest

  18. Erosion by Wind • When small, loose sediments like sand are available, erosion by wind is possible • Arid regions are the most common places for wind erosion to take place

  19. Ventifacts: wedge-shaped rocks formed by wind erosion, often pitted.

  20. Sand dunes are hills of sand deposited by wind • Found wherever there are strong winds and loose sand • Have long, gentle slope on windward side • Have shorter, steep slope on leeward side