ENG 312: Midsemester Exam
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ENG 312: Midsemester Exam Language Awareness by Eschholz, Rosa and Clark 9 th Edition (2005), pages 1-420. by Don L. F. Nilsen And Stella Hadjistassou. CONTRAST THE FOLLOWING. Helen Keller’s epiphany vs. Malcolm X’s epiphany vs. David Raymond’s epiphany Denotation vs. Connotation

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ENG 312: Midsemester ExamLanguage Awarenessby Eschholz, Rosa and Clark9th Edition (2005), pages 1-420

by Don L. F. Nilsen

And Stella Hadjistassou

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CONTRAST THE FOLLOWING

  • Helen Keller’s epiphany vs. Malcolm X’s epiphany vs. David Raymond’s epiphany

  • Denotation vs. Connotation

  • Sign vs. Symbol

  • Strong vs. Weak form of the Whorf Hypothesis

  • Cognates vs. False Cognates

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CONTRAST: MALE VS. FEMALE CONVERSATIONS

  • Status vs. Support

  • Independence vs. Intimacy

  • Advice vs. Understanding

  • Information vs. Feelings

  • Orders vs. Proposals

  • Conflict vs. Compromise

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CONTRAST MALE VS. FEMALE LANGUAGE STRATEGIES

  • Tag Questions

  • Rising Intonations

  • Hedges

  • Indirect Language

  • Diminutives

  • Euphemism

  • Politeness Phenomena

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DEFINITIONS

  • classical definition

  • dead metaphor

  • Ebonics

  • epiphany

  • euphemism

  • grammatical gender

  • morphophonemic spelling system

  • semantic inversion

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EXAMPLES 1

  • Doublespeak

  • Euphemism

  • Gobbledygook

  • Inflated Language

  • Jargon

  • Weasel Words

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EXAMPLES 2

  • Name Calling

  • Glittering Generality

  • Plain-Folks Appeal

  • Stroking (Argument ad Populum)

  • Argument ad Hominem

  • Guilt or Glory by Association

  • Bandwagon

  • Faulty Cause and Effect

  • False Analogy

  • Begging the Question

  • The two-Extremes Fallacy (False Dilemma)

  • Card Stacking (Cherry Picking)

  • Testimonial

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EXPLANATIONS

  • Audience, Knowledge, Attitude, Needs

  • “Traduttore, traditore!” (The translator is a traitor)

  • Explain the Great English Vowel Shift

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HISTORY OF ENGLISH

  • Contrast Old English and Modern English in terms of the following:

  • Phonology

  • Orthography

  • Morphology

  • Syntax

  • Semantics

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IDENTIFICATIONS

  • S. I. Hayakawa

  • William Labov

  • William Lutz

  • Robert MacNeil

  • George Orwell

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LISTINGS (5-POINTS EACH)

  • 5 differences between Spanish and English

  • 5 features of Nonstandard Black English

  • 5 eponyms

  • 5 Romance languages

  • 5 Germanic languages

  • 5 Slavic languages

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NAMES

  • Tell what names each of the following people had after they changed their names: Frederic Austerlitz, Benjamin Kubelsky, Bernard Schwartz, Doris Von Keppelhoff, Robert Zimmerman, James Bumgardner, and Marian Michael Morrison.

  • ANSWERS: Fred Astaire, Jack Benny, Tony Curtis, Doris Day, Bob Dylan, James Garner, and John Wayne

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SHORT-ANSWER ESSAY (5 POINTS)

  • Explain the nature of slanting.

  • Contrast levels of adequacy (prescriptive, descriptive, explanatory, evaluative)

  • Contrast power and solidarity

  • Contrast lecturing and listening

  • Discuss the notion that “English is a superior language”

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LONG-ANSWER ESSAY (10 PTS)

  • Explain the differences between male and female language.

  • Explain in detail how non-standard dialects tend to be more logical than standard dialects.

  • In detail, compare and contrast human language with the communication systems of other animals.

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Contrast the following kinds of truth:

  • Empirical truth (true vs. false)

  • Linguistic truth (tautology vs. contradiction)

  • Metaphorical truth (apt vs. inept)

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!PowerPoints:

  • HISTORY OF ENGLISH: One feature each to Contrast Old English and Modern English Phonology, Morphology, Graphology, Syntax, and Semantics

  • HUMOR: Give 3 Features, 3 Functions, and 3 Subjects of Humor

  • LITERARY GENRES: Give four literary genres and an example of each:

  • PROSE STYLES--LISTING: List ten qualities of Tough, Sweet, or Stuffy Language (I choose the prose style)

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!!PowerPoints Continued:

  • REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS: Give five phonological tests that will help to determine where a person spent the first six or so years of his or her life.

  • SEMANTIC GAPS: Be able to give an example of each of the following: Acronym, Blend, Borrowing, Clipping, Coinage, Compound, Meaning Shift, Metathesis, Part-of-Speech Change Prefixation, and Suffixation

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!!!PowerPoints (Continued)

  • URBAN LEGENDS (10 PTS): Tell an urban legend (5pts), and explain the dramatic devices used (5 pts)

  • USAGE: Given sentences from the Usage handout, be able to correct those sentences.

  • VARIES: Give an example of word marked for each of the following: V-Vocation (Jargon), A-Age, R-Region, I-Informality, E-Ethnicity, S-Sex

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