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Social & Emotional Development. Chapter 10. Processes in Social Behavior -Social Behavior as Operant Interactions. : Bert's Contingency : Sees Ernie → "Hi Ernie " → E. smiles Sd → R → S+r ( Setting Event = Walking along) Ernie's Contingency :

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Processes in social behavior social behavior as operant interactions
Processes in Social Behavior -Social Behavior as Operant Interactions

  • :

  • Bert's Contingency:

  • Sees Ernie →"Hi Ernie" →E. smiles

  • Sd → R →S+r

  • ( Setting Event = Walking along)

  • Ernie's Contingency:

  • "Hi Ernie“ → E smiles→Bert Smiles

  • Sd →R →S+r

  • (Setting Event = In a good mood)



Phylogenic contributions to social development
Phylogenic Contributions to Social Development Interactions

  • Physical Characteristics

  • Social Reflexes

    • Facial Expressions

    • Reflexive Crying

  • Neonatal Imitation


Ontogenic contributions
Ontogenic Contributions Interactions

  • Social Behaviors

  • Reinforcement

  • Proximity

  • Attention

  • Affection

  • Observational Learning


Social reinforcement
Social Reinforcement Interactions

  • Secondary Reinforcers

  • Paired with Primary Reinforcers


Proximity
Proximity Interactions

  • Reinforcer - The nearness of you


Attention
Attention Interactions

  • Mand for Mom

    • Verbal behavior reinforced by mom doing something

  • Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention


Ways of reducing mands for attention
Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention Interactions

  • DRO – Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior

    • Incompatible response technique

    • Strengthens more desirable behavior

    • Doesn’t produced deprivation of reinforcer

  • Positive (Presentation) Punishment – Not recommended

    • Ethical? Escape

  • Negative Punishment (By Loss) (Weak if delayed)

    • Loss of privileges

    • Time-out


Affection
Affection Interactions

  • Usually reinforces desirable behavior


Observational learning traditional approached
Observational Learning InteractionsTraditional Approached

  • Distinction between

    • Learning

    • Performance

  • Direct reinforcement affects performance

  • Vicarious consequences affect learning

    • Vicarious reinforcement

    • Vicarious punishment


An operant approach to observational learning
An Operant Approach to Observational Learning Interactions

  • Generalized imitation

    • Imitation (matching form of response) a response class

    • Class assembled because some (not all) matching behaviors are reinforced

    • Counterimitation – reinforced for different behavior than model

    • So called “vicarious reinforcement” is actually an Sd cuing operant matching behavior


Observational learning of respondents emotional behavior
Observational Learning of Respondents - Emotional Behavior Interactions

  • Other’s emotional response serves as UCS for emotional response (UCR)

  • Stimulus (NS) paired with other’s emotional response (UCS) becomes CS producing emotional response (CR)


Prosocial transactions intuitive parenting
Prosocial Transactions - Intuitive Parenting Interactions

  • 1. Creating and maintaining an awake state.

  • 2. Presenting a simple structure of stimuli and learning trials.

  • 3. Providing a large number of repetitions of trials.

  • 4. Gradually ordering of tasks so that there is increasing complexity.

  • 5. Using adequate reinforcers.

  • 6. Being sensitive to feedback signals indicating the child's limits of tolerance.


Social behaviors in infancy
Social Behaviors in Infancy Interactions

  • Attachment

  • Separation Protests

  • Touch

  • Fear

  • Social Referencing

  • Sibling Rivaly

  • Empathy

  • Morality


Attachment
Attachment Interactions

  • Organized pattern of behavior directed toward one or more individuals.

  • Result of phyologenic & ontogenic factors

  • Ontogenic – reinforcement of proximity, imitation, and identification behaviors16


Reinforcement of separation protests
Reinforcement of Separation Protests Interactions

  • Loss of primary caregiver results in loss of reinforcers– extinction burst

  • Study by Gewirtz & Pelaez-Nogueras

  • Baseline- noncontingent reinforcement—protests were low

  • Contingent reinforcement by mothers of protests – protests increase

  • Noncontingent (reversal) – Protest decrease


Social referencing
Social Referencing Interactions


Separation protests gewirtz pelaez nogureras 1996
Separation Protests InteractionsGewirtz & Pelaez-Nogureras (1996)


The power of touch
The Power of Touch Interactions



Fear of dark
Fear of Dark Interactions


Fear of strangers
Fear of Strangers Interactions


Infant carrying positions
Infant Carrying Positions Interactions

  • Facing Inward Facing Outward


Morality
Morality Interactions

  • Direct Contingency-shaped behavior

  • Rule-governed behavior

  • Learns difference between

    • Immediate direct consequences

    • Remote, delayed, indirect consequences

  • Tracking – tracking or following actual contingencies rather than just follow rules

  • Pliance – complying with the rules in spite of discrepancies with actual contingencies.


Morality behavior analytic approach
Morality InteractionsBehavior-Analytic Approach

  • An increasingly sophisticated repertoire of behaviors to further one’s long-term interests based on predicted outcomes.

  • An organized system of rule governed behavior that controls behavior patterns that society considers “moral”.

  • Develops from the interaction of the child and environment in active interaction.

  • Context is crucial


A cognitive view of morality kohlberg s theory
A Cognitive View of Morality InteractionsKohlberg’s Theory

  • Moral Reasoning (Not necessarily behavior)

  • Level I – Preconventional Morality

    • Stage 1) Tangible consequences

    • Stage 2) Hedonistic get rewards/avoid pun

  • Level II - Conventional Morality

    • Stage 3) Follows rules to get social approval

    • Stage 4) Follow conventional rules to support social order

  • Level III – Postconventional Morality

    • Stage 5) Have a social contract to do what is right

    • Stage 6) Universal principles of justice, democracy, etc.


Taxonomy of moral rules pelaez moreno
Taxonomy of Moral Rules Interactions(Pelaez & Moreno)

  • Explicit vs. Implicit

  • Accurate vs. Inaccurate (false or inconsistent)

  • Complex (multiple contingencies) vs. Simple (single contingency)

  • Other vs. Self-Derived source

  • 16 possible combinations.


Development of rule compliance self instruction
Development of Rule Compliance & Self-Instruction Interactions

  • 1. Early – Parents prompt & reinforce compliance to simple rules.

  • 2. Generalized compliance (rule following becomes response class).

  • 3. Others (e.g., teachers, grandparents) add rules. Child learns to discriminate which rules will have consequences.

  • 4. Adults prompt child to give own rules (self-instruction).

  • 5. Self-instruction generalizes to novel situations – Generalized self-instruction.


Morality kohlberg
Morality- Kohlberg Interactions