Food Safety and Hygienic Practices in Agriculture Marketing NATIONAL CONFERENCE at MOUNT ABU Aug. 28-30 , 2012 Dr. Hari Prakash Joint Director Quality Council Of India
. • Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 • Regulations • Schedule 4 Part II • General Requirements on Hygienic & Sanitary Practices to be followed by all Food Business Operators
Objectives of FSSAI • To consolidate the laws relating to food • To establish food safety and standards authority of India for laying down science based standards for food • To regulate the manufacture, storage, distribution, sale & import of food products • To ensure availability of safe & whole food for human consumption • http://www.fssai.gov.in
PFA to FSSA PFA Prevention of Food Adulteration Act- 1954 FSSA Food Safety and Standards Act - 2006
Old Food Regulations • Fruit Product Order, 1955 • Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 • Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947 • Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Orders, 1998 • The Solvent Extracted Oil, De-Oiled Meal and Edible Flour ( Control) Order,1967 • Meat Food Products Order, 1973 5
Key Elements of FSSAI 2006 • Food safety management system • Risk assessment • Communication • Product recall • GHP • Penalty for unhygienic processing • Scope covers all commercial food • Packaging & labelling including nutrition • Guidelines for imported food 6
FSSA 2006 The 12 chapters of FSSA 2006 • Preliminary : Definitions • FSSAI : (Administration) • General principles of Food Safety • General Provisions as to articles of food • Provisions relating to import • Special responsibilities as to food safety 7
FSSA 2006 contd.. 7. Enforcement of the Act 8. Analysis of food : laboratories, sampling & public analysts 9. Offences & Penalties 10. Adjudication & food safety appellate tribunal 11. Finance, accounts, audits, reports 12. Miscellaneous 8
Who Require License:[See Regulation2.1.2, Regulation 2.1.3 and Regulation2.1.7] License / Renewal of license under FSSA, 2006 for kind of business: • Manufacturing/Processing including sorting, grading etc. • Packaging • Relabeling ( by third party under own packing and labeling) • Storage/Warehouse/Cold Storage • Retail Trade • Wholesale Trade • Distributor/Supplier Transporter of food • Milk collection/chilling • Slaughter House • Solvent extracting unit • Solvent extracting and oil refining plant • Importing • Catering , Dhabha or any other food vending establishment • Club /canteen
Draft Food Safety & Standards Regulations 2010 (FSSA 2006) • Chapter 1: General • Chapter 2: Food Authority and Transaction of Business • Chapter 3: Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses • Schedule 1: List of FB falling under purview of Central Licensing Authority • Schedule 2: Form A & B (Registration & License) +Documents for License + Form C and Form Ds • Schedule 3: Fees • Schedule 4: General, Part 1 a & b, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5 • Chapter 4 : Packaging and Labeling Regulations • Chapter 5 : Food Products Standard • Chapter 6: Substance Added to Food • Chapter 7: Prohibition and Restriction on Sales • Chapter 8 : Contaminants, Toxins, Residues • Chapter 9: Laboratory and Sample Analysis • Chapter 10 : Others 10
Definition of “Food Safety Management System” (Chapter I) Adoption of GMP, GHP, HACCP & other such practices as may be specified by regulation, for the food business 12
FSMS requirements in Schedule 4 Part I : General Hygiene & Sanitary Practices to be followed to petty food business operators Part I A :Sanitary & Hygienic requirements for food manufacturers / processor Part I B :Sanitary & Hygienic requirements for units other than manufacturing Ref. : Clause 7.2 of ISO 22000
FSMS related requirements in schedule 4 Part II: General requirements on Hygiene & Sanitary practices to be followed by all food business operators Covers Location, layout, design, utilities, food operation control …….) and FBOs shall identify steps in the activities of Food Business, which are critical to ensuring food safety and ensure that safety procedures are identified, implemented, maintained and reviewed periodically. Main Ref. : Codex General Principles of Hygiene, Other references: Clause 7.2 of ISO 22000, PAS 220, Risk Assessment based approach 7.4, 7.5, 7.6 of ISO 22000 14
Food Safety and Standards Act 2006 (Schedule 4, Part II)General Requirements on Hygiene and Sanitary Practices to be followed by all Food Business Operators. It also refers to identifying steps critical to food Safety and management of safety procedures there in. • Location and Surroundings • Layout and Design of Food Establishment Premises • Equipment • Facilities: Water Supply, Cleaning utensils and equipments, Washing of Raw Materials, Ice and Steam, Drainage and Waste Disposal, Personnel Facilities and Toilets, Air Quality and Ventilation, Lighting • Food Operations and Control: Procurement of Raw Materials and food, Storage of Raw Materials and Food, Food Processing, Preparation Packaging Distribution and Service: Time and Temp Control • Management and Supervision • Food Testing Facilities • Audit, Documentation and Records • Sanitation and Maintenance of Establishment Premises: Cleaning and Maintenance, Pest Control Systems • Personal Hygiene: Health Status, Personal Cleanliness, Personal behaviour, Visitors • Product Information and Consumer Awareness • Training 15
FSMS related requirements in Schedule 4 Part III : Specific hygiene & sanitary practices to be followed by food business operators engaged in manufacture, processing, storing & selling of milk & milk products Part IV sale of meat & meat products Part V FBOs engaged in catering / food service establishments 16
Schedule 4 Part II General Requirements on Hygiene and Sanitary Practices
1.Location and Surroundings Away from environmentally polluted areas and industrial activities to prevent Obnoxious odour, fumes, excessive soot, dust, smoke, chemical or biological emissions and pollutants. Areas subject to flooding Areas prone to infestations of pests Areas where wastes, solid or liquid cannot be removed effectively. Premises not to be used residential purposes
2.Layout and Design of Food Establishment Premises Not subject to cross contamination (e.g. processing from receiving) Activities Compartmentalized. Material movement unidirectional Machinery not to occupy more the 50% of the Manufacturing area Flooring Walls, Ceilings, Exhausts, Windows
3.Equipment Food Contact Equipment, Utensils Location, Design and Fabrication Containers for Waste Containers for Chemicals
3.Equipment Equipment and containers that come in contact with food & Utensils for sale Made of corrosion free materials, which do not impart any toxicity to the food material. At all times in good order and repair, a clean and sanitary condition. Dedicated Equipment and Containers Located, designed and fabricated Equipment and containers for waste, by-products and inedible or dangerous substances, identifiable and suitably constructed
4.Facilities Water Facilities for Cleaning Utensils Facilities for Cleaning Raw Materials Ice and Steam Drainage and Waste Disposal Personnel Facilities Air Quality Lighting
Water Storage & Treatment Must be at a convenient location to feed entire facilities Must provide for receiving and supply In line disinfection devices like Chlorine doing pumps/Venturi-meters/UV etc Must be made up material that will not support microbial/weed growth & remain cleanable & easy to maintain Must be protected against pest entry
4.Facilities Water Supply Only potable water, as per BIS Specs. with appropriate facilities for its storage, distribution shall be used as ingredient and also for food handling, washing, processing and cooking. Water storage tanks - cleaned periodically and records maintained. Non potable water only for cooling of equipment, steam production, fire fighting & refrigeration equipment Prevent Cross Contamination Facilities for cleaning Utensils / Equipment Facilities for washing of Raw Materials
4.Facilities Ice and Steam Drainage and Waste disposal Disposal of sewage and effluents (solid, liquid and gas) - in conformity with requirements of Factory Environment / Pollution Control Board. Waste storage - Not to contaminate the food process, storage areas, the environment inside and outside the food establishment Waste shall be kept in covered containers Waste not to accumulate in food handling, food storage, working areas.
4.Facilities Personnel facilities and Toilets Washing and drying of hands Wash basins Supply of hot and /or cold water Separate lavatories for males and females Changing facilities for personnel Suitably located - not open directly into food processing, handling or storage areas. Trained people
4. FacilitiesAir Quality and Ventilation Ventilation systems Natural and /or mechanical including air filters, exhaust fans, Air not to flow from contaminated areas to clean areas Lighting
5.Food Operations and Controls Procurement of Raw Materials Storage of Raw Materials Processing / Preparation Packaging Distribution / Service
5.Food Operations and Controls Storage of Raw Materials and Food Facilities designed and constructed to protect food from contamination Maintenance and cleaning against pest access and accumulation Cold Storage Segregation and identification for the storage of raw, processed, rejected, recalled or returned materials Raw materials and food in separate areas from printed packaging materials, stationary, hardware and cleaning materials / chemicals. Separate from the area of Processed, Cooked and Packaged products. Temperature and Humidity to be maintained FIFO Non-Toxic Containers Racks / Pallets above floor level, away from walls
5.Food Operations and Controls Procurement of Raw Material Not to accept raw material or ingredient containing parasites, undesirable micro-organisms, pesticides, veterinary drugs or toxic items, decomposed or extraneous substances, not likely to be reduced to acceptable level during sorting and/or processing Conform to the Regulations under the Act. Records – Materials and Source
5.Food Operations and Controls Food Processing / Preparation Time and Temperature Control System to effectively control time and temperature Time and temperature of receiving, processing, cooking, cooling, storage, packaging, distribution and food service upto the consumer, as applicable Defrosted / thawed material not to be stored back and after opening. Tolerance limits and records chimney, exhaust,fan etc.
5.Food Operations and Controls Food Packaging As per Act Food Grade Aluminium, Plastic, Tin as per Act Packaging Materials / Gases – Non- Toxic under storage / use conditions
5.Food Operations and Controls Food Distribution / Service Supply chain system to minimize food spoilage during transportation Processed / packaged and / or ready-to-eat food. Conveyances, Containers designed, constructed and maintained to effectively maintain temperature, humidity, atmosphere and other conditions necessary to protect food Conveyances, Containers for transporting / serving foodstuffs shall be non toxic, clean and maintained in good condition to protect foods from contamination. Dedicated Conveyance, Cleaning, Disinfection
6. Management and Supervision SOPs Technical Managers, Supervisors
6.Management and Supervision Detailed SOP Technical Managers and supervisors have appropriate Qualifications, Knowledge / skills on food hygiene principles and practices Ensure Food Safety and Quality Products, Judge Food Hazards, take appropriate Ensure effective monitoring and supervision
7.Food Testing Facilities In-house Laboratory External Laboratory
7.Food Testing Facilities Laboratory In-house, for testing of food materials / food for physical, microbiological and chemical analysis as per specification/standards under the rules and regulations for regular / periodic testing If need, food materials / food shall be tested before dispatch. Or, regular testing be done through an accredited laboratory. In case of complaints, testing either in the in-house laboratory or from a designated lab outside
8. Audit, Documentation and Records Periodic Audits Documentation and Records
8.Audit, Documentation and Records Periodic audit of Whole system as per SOP To find out any fault / gap in the GMP / GHP system Records of food processing / preparation, production / cooking, storage, distribution, service, food quality, laboratory test results, cleaning and sanitation, pest control and product recall To be retained for one year or the shelf-life of the product, whichever is more.
9. Sanitation and Maintenance Cleaning and Maintenance Pest Control System
9.Sanitation and Maintenance Cleaning and Maintenance Cleaning and Sanitation Programme Records to indicate Areas Cleaning frequency Cleaning procedure Equipment and Materials to be used for cleaning. Equipments in manufacturing - Cleaned and Sterilized after each use at the end of the day. Preventive maintenance of equipment, machinery, building and other facilities As per manufacturer’s instructions. Non-toxic, Edible Grade Lubricants be used.
9.Sanitation and Maintenance Pest Control Systems Establishment to be kept in good repair Holes, drains etc. to be kept sealed Or fitted with mesh / grills / claddings Animals, Birds and Pets not to be allowed into the food establishment areas/ premises. Food materials To be stored in pest-proof containers stacked above the ground and away from walls.
9.Sanitation and Maintenance Pest Control Systems Treatment with permissible chemical, physical or biological agents, within the permissible limits, Treatment to be carried out without posing a threat to the safety or suitability of food. Records of pesticides / insecticides used along with dates and frequency to be maintained.
10. Personal Hygiene Health Status Personal Cleanliness Personal Behavior Visitors
10.Personal Hygiene Health Status Personnel known / suspected, to be suffering from / to be a carrier of a disease or illness likely to be transmitted through food, not to be allowed to enter into any food handling area System of reporting illness, Periodic medical checkups and also if clinically or epidemiologically indicated
10.Personal Hygiene Health Status Medically examined once in a year to rule out infectious, contagious and other communicable diseases. Record of these examinations. Compulsory yearly inoculation against the enteric group of diseases and records thereof In case of epidemic, all workers to be vaccinated irrespective of yearly vaccination.
10.Personal Hygiene Personal Behavior Food handlers to refrain from smoking; spitting; chewing or eating; sneezing or coughing over any food Eating in food preparation and food service areas. Food handlers to trim their nails and hair periodically, Do not encourage or practice unhygienic means while handling food