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German Grammar Lectures. Lecture 7: Case and Adjective Endings (Revision) Designed by Paul Joyce University of Portsmouth E-Mail: Paul.Joyce@port.ac.uk. 7.1 Introduction. Over the course of the previous six lectures, a large amount of ground has been covered fairly quickly.

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german grammar lectures
German Grammar Lectures

Lecture 7:

Case and Adjective Endings

(Revision)

Designed by Paul Joyce

University of Portsmouth

E-Mail: Paul.Joyce@port.ac.uk

7 1 introduction
7.1 Introduction
  • Over the course of the previous six lectures, a large amount of ground has been covered fairly quickly.
  • This lecture will seek to revise two areas of grammar which cause students of German the most problems:
  • 1) The identification of cases
  • 2) Adjective endings
7 2 starting with the subject
7.2 Starting with the subject
  • Every German clause has a subject. If you do not have a subject in your clause, you have made a mistake!
  • The subject is in the nominative case.
  • Example: Der Junge schreibt (The boy (SUBJECT in the nominative case) writes))
  • We identify the subject of the clause: a) by the endings on the verb b) by logic
7 3 word order
7.3 Word Order
  • In German objects can precede or follow the subject. It is the case endings and the verb endings that tell us which case is which:
  • Die Katze sah die Hunde. (Plural verb: The cat saw the dogs)
  • Die Katze sah die Waschmaschine. (It has to be the cat that saw the washing machine, as washing machines can’t see!)
7 4 the verbs sein werden and bleiben
7.4 The verbs sein, werden and bleiben
  • Note too that when the verbs sein, bleibenwerden and scheinen are followed by nouns, these nouns are in the NOMINATIVE case

Examples:

  • Eristein guter Lehrer (not: “einen guten”)
  • Ballackbleibt der beste Spieler (not: “den ”)
  • Ulf wird mein Freund (not: “meinen...”)
  • Er scheint ein guter Mensch (not: “einen”)
7 5 case of the object s
7.5 Case of the object(s) ?
  • The case in which the object(s) in a clause is (are) in depends on the verb. The options: - accusative - dative - genitive - prepositional object (i.e. denken an + Acc)
  • Some verbs take TWO objects. With a few exceptions, these will be in different cases.
7 6 key accusative constructions
7.6 Key accusative constructions
  • Non-Germans often forget that the following constructions require a direct object:
  • bezahlen: Wer bezahltden Schaden? (pay for the damage  NOT “bezahlen für”)
  • es gibt:Es gibt einen Gott! (= There is...)
  • fragen: Ich fragteden Chef nach Arbeit.

(= I asked the boss if there was any work.)

7 7 verbs taking the accusative be
7.7 Verbs taking the accusative: be-
  • The prefix be- turns an intransitive verb into a transitive verb taking a direct object:
  • bezahlen:Das bezahle ich! (= to pay for)
  • bestellen: Ich bestelle das Buch (= to order)
  • Such verbs use haben as auxiliary verb to form their perfect and pluperfect tenses.
  • BUT: begegnen, befehlen (order) + Dative
  • e.g. Wir begegnen ihm(= We meet him)
7 8 verbs with and without be
beantworten: Sie beantwortete die Frage (= to answer (+ Acc.))

bedienen: Ich bediene die Kundin(= serve)

bedrohen: Bedrohst du mich?(= threaten)

beenden: Sie beenden den Streik(= to end)

antworten: Antwortet er auf meine Frage? (= to answer (+ Prep.))

dienen: Sie dienen dem König (+ Dative)

drohen: Drohst du mir? (+ Dative)

enden: Der Streik endet (= Intransitive)

7.8 Verbs with and without be-
7 9 accusative constructions
7.9 Accusative constructions
  • Many of the following constructions are also in the accusative case:
  • Greetings: Guten Morgen / Tag / Abend!; Herzlichen Glückwunsch!; Vielen Dank!
  • Time Phrases: jeden Tag; letzten Freitag; nächsten Sonntag; den ganzen Tag lang
  • Prepositions: bis, durch, für, gegen, ohne, um
7 10 verbs that take two direct objects
7.10 Verbs that take two direct objects
  • Note however that the following verbs can take 2 direct objects:
  • kosten: Das hat mich1000 Eurogekostet
  • lehren: Er hat ihnDeutschgelehrt
  • nennen: Ich nennedicheinen Lügner
  • fragen: Hast du sie etwasgefragt?
  • bitten:Das möchte ich Siebitten!
  • angehen: Das gehtdich nichtsan!
7 11 verbs that take the dative case
7.11 Verbs that take the dative case
  • A number of verbs in German take an dative object as opposed to a direct object.
  • These have no direct equivalent in English, although some can be grouped together:
  • abraten: Sie hat ihm davon abgeraten

(= She advised him against it)

  • raten: Sie hat ihmgeraten, etwas zu tun

(= She advised him to do something)

7 12 dative verbs of answering
7.12 Dative verbs of “answering”
  • antworten: Antworten Sie mir!

(= Answer me!)

  • BUT: Antworten Sie auf die Frage!

(= Answer the question!)

  • entgegnen: Er entgegnet dem Mann, dass…

(= He replies to the man that...)

  • erwidern: Sie erwiderte demRichter, dass... (= She replied to the judge that...)
7 13 dative verbs of helping
7.13 Dative verbs of “helping”
  • beistehen: Meine Freunde stehenmirbei (= My friends are giving me support)
  • dienen: Er dientederKönigin von England (= He served the queen of England)
  • helfen: Könnten Sie mir helfen ?

(= Could you help me?)

  • nützen: Der Rat nützt ihnen nicht viel (= The advice doesn’t help them much)
7 14 dative verbs of dis obeying
7.14 Dative verbs of “(dis-)obeying”
  • folgen: Folgen Sie mirbitte!

(= Follow me please!)

  • gehorchen: Das Kind gehorcht seinem Vater (= The child obeys its father)
  • widersprechen: Du hast ihmwidersprochen (= You disobeyed him)
  • widerstehen: Wir widerstehendem Zauber (= We’re resisting the magic)
7 15 dative verbs of mis trusting
7.15 Dative verbs of “(mis-)trusting”
  • glauben: Natürlich glaube ichdir! (= Of course I believe you!)
  • misstrauen: Anna misstraut ihrem Gedächtnis (= Anna mistrusts her memory)
  • trauen: Der Soldat trautedem Frieden nicht (= The soldier was wary of the peace)
  • vertrauen: Ich vertrauemeiner Sekretärin (= I trust my secretary)
7 16 dative verbs of hurting sorrow
7.16 Dative verbs of “hurting/sorrow”
  • fehlen: Du fehlstmir sehr, Schatz! (= I miss you a lot, darling!)
  • Leid tun: Das tut mir wirklich Leid

(= I am really sorry about that)

  • schaden: Der Lärm schadetdem Menschen (= Noise damages the individual)
  • wehtun: Er hat ihr sehr wehgetan

(= He caused her a lot of pain)

7 17 dative verbs of resembling
7.17 Dative verbs of “resembling”
  • ähneln: Er ähnelt seinem Bruder

(= He resembles his brother)

  • entsprechen: Das entsprichtden Tatsachen (= This corresponds to the facts)
  • gleichen: Jeder Tag gleichtdem anderen (= Every day is like the next)
7 18 dative verbs miscellaneous
7.18 Dative Verbs: Miscellaneous
  • befehlen: Er befiehltmir, das nicht zu tun (= He orders me not to do it.)
  • danken: Ich dankeIhnen sehr dafür! (= I thank you very much for this!)
  • einfallen: Das ist mir nicht eingefallen! (=That didn’t occur to me!)
  • gehören: Der BMW gehörtihrgar nicht (= The BMW doesn’t belong to her at all)
7 19 dative verbs miscellaneous 2
7.19 Dative Verbs: Miscellaneous (2)
  • gelingen: Das ist ihrnicht gelungen (= She didn’t succeed in this)
  • genügen: Das genügt mir eigentlich

(= That’s enough for me actually)

  • gratulieren: Er gratuliertdirzum Geburtstag (= He congratulates you on your birthday)
  • verzeihen: Könnt ihr mirverzeihen?

(= Can you forgive me?)

7 20 misleading dative constructions
7.20 Misleading dative constructions
  • With some of these verbs, the dative object corresponds to the subject in English:
  • auffallen: Das fällt mir auf (= I notice it)
  • fehlen: Du fehlstmir (= I miss you)
  • gefallen: Das gefällt mirgar nicht! (= I really don’t like that!)
  • gelingen: Das ist mirnicht gelungen. (= I didn’t manage that!)
7 21 misleading datives dis liking
7.21 Misleading datives: (dis-)liking
  • gefallen: Die Sache gefällt mirnicht! (= I don’t like this at all!)
  • missfallen: Der Film missfällt den Kritikern (= The critics don’t like the new film)
  • schmecken: Pizza schmecktallen Kindern (= All children like pizza)

(N.B. Note the sentence constructions!)

7 22 verbs taking dative accusative
7.22 Verbs taking dative & accusative
  • There are a number of transitive verbs which take both an accusative or direct object and a dative or indirect object.
  • As a general rule, the direct object is usually a thing.
  • This thing is being taken from or given to a person who is the indirect object (i.e. is in the dative case).
7 23 dative acc giving taking
7.23 Dative +Acc.: giving & taking
  • bringen: Er bringtihreinen Blumenstrauß (= He brings her a bunch of flowers)
  • geben: Julia gab dem Lehrereinen Apfel (= Julia gave the teacher an apple)
  • nehmen: Sie nahmihnendie Hoffnung (= She took their hopes away)
  • stehlen: Der Täter stahl mirden Fernseher (= The culprit stole my TV set)
7 24 dative acc verbs of saying
7.24 Dative & acc.: verbs of “saying”
  • beantworten: Ich beantworte dirdiese Frage (= I’ll answer this question for you)
  • erzählen: Anna erzähltemirdie Geschichte (= Anna told me the story)
  • sagen: Ich sage Ihnenmeine Meinung

(= I’ll tell you my opinion)

  • versprechen: Man versprach ihm100 Euro (= They promised him 100 euros)
7 25 the genitive case
7.25 The genitive case
  • The main role of the genitive case is to link nouns. It tends to indicate possession.
  • It usually follows the noun on which it depends, but names may come first - Karls Freundin, Goethes Werke (no apostrophe!)
  • The genitive is also used with certain prepositions: wegen, trotz, statt, während, auf Grund(because of), innerhalb(inside), außerhalb(outside), jenseits(beyond), diesseits(this side of), angesichts (in view of)
7 26 case endings
7.26 Case endings
  • The cases can also be identified by endings on determiners, adjectives and nouns.
  • Noun endings are limited in German:
  • Dative plural-n (e.g. Hier ist das Haus mit den Lichtern)
  • Genitive singular masc. / neuter - -(e)s
  • (e.g. die Geschichte des Schlosses)
7 27 determiners
7.27 Determiners
  • Endings on determiners show case information.
  • We can divide determiners into two types: 1) The definite article and its equivalents Demonstratives:der, dieser, jener, solcherDefiners:jeder, (irgend-)welcher, beide, allerPlurals:viele, wenige, mehrere, einige
  • 2) The indefinite article and its equivalents ein, kein, mein, ihr, unser, eueretc.
7 29 quiz 1 definite article endings
7.29 Quiz (1): Definite article endings
  • Thus the endings on “der” tell us which case the noun is in, its gender & its number:
  • What do the following forms of the definite article tell us?
  • 1) dem ?
  • 2) den ?
  • 3) des ?
  • 4) der ?
7 30 quiz 1 answers
7.30 Quiz (1): Answers
  • The endings on these forms of the definite article give us the following information:
  • 1) dem Dative case, masculine & neuter singular
  • 2) den Masculine accusative singular & dative plural for all genders
  • 3) des Masculine and neuter genitive singular
  • BUT 4) der a little more complicated!
7 31 the many uses of der
7.31 The many uses of “der”
  • “der” is the definite article ending which can be used in the most amount of contexts:
  • der masculine nominative singular (e.g. Der Mann hat ein Auto.)
  • BUT also feminine dative singular: (e.g. Er gab der Frau das Auto.)
  • AND also feminine singular & plural in the genitive:

(e.g. das Auto der Frau / der Frauen )

7 34 indefinite article possessives
7.34 Indefinite article & possessives
  • Unlike “der” there is a zero ending on the indefinite article & possessives for: - masculine nouns in the nominative case - neuter nouns in the nom. and acc. Cases
  • Anja liest ein Buch (NOT: eines)
  • Unser Buch wird gelesen (NOT: unseres)
  • Ist das Buch ihr Roman? (NOT: ihrer)
7 36 einer and eines
7.36 “einer” and “eines”
  • einer = EITHER feminine dative singular: (e.g. Er gab einer Frau das Auto.)
  • OR feminine genitive singular: (e.g. das Auto einer Frau)
  • eines = EITHER masculine genitive sing.: (e.g. das Auto eines Mannes)
  • OR neuter genitive singular: (e.g. das Auto eines Mädchens)
7 38 the german possessives
Singular

mein: my

dein: your(= informal)

Ihr: your(= formal)

sein: his; its

ihr: her

Plural

unser: our

euer: your(= informal)

Ihr: your(= formal)

ihr: their

7.38 The German possessives
7 40 the possessive euer
7.40 The possessive euer
  • The plural possessive euer drops the -e- of the stem when it adds endings:
  • Ist das euer Auto? (= Is that your car?)
  • BUT: Wir sitzen in euremAuto. (We are sitting in your car.)
  • Die Farbe euresAutos gefällt mir. (I like the colour of your car.)
7 42 quiz 2 possessives
7.42 Quiz (2): possessives
  • Ich schenkte _______ Mann einen Ring. (I gave my husband a ring.)
  • Verändern Sie die Farbe ________ Augen!(Change the colour of your eyes!)
  • Ohne ________ BMW könnt ihr nicht leben.(You can’t live without your BMW.)
  • __________ Fernsehapparat ist kaputt!(Our TV is broken!)
7 43 quiz 2 answers
7.43 Quiz (2): answers
  • Ich schenkte meinem Mann einen Ring. (I gave my husband a ring.)
  • Verändern Sie die Farbe Ihrer Augen!(Change the colour of your eyes!)
  • Ohne euren BMW könnt ihr nicht leben.(You can’t live without your BMW.)
  • Unser Fernsehapparat ist kaputt!(Our TV is broken!)
7 45 quiz 2 answers
7.45 Quiz (2): Answers
  • The endings on the chocolate bar wrapper give us the following information:
  • 1) der Genuss Masculine nominativesingular noun
  • 2) einer Tafel Feminine genitive singular
  • 3) dieser Sorte Feminine genitive singular
  • 4) Ihrem Sexleben Neuter dative singular
7 46 weak adjective declension
7.46 Weak adjective declension
  • The “weak” adjective endings are used after the definite article and its equivalents:
  • der - the (definite article)
  • dieser - this; jener - that
  • jeder - each; welcher? - which?
  • aller, sämtlicher- all
  • beide(= plural) - both
7 47 weak adjective endings
7.47 Weak adjective endings
  • The “weak” declension only has TWO possible endings: -e and -en.
  • -e is only used with: - the nominative singular of all genders

- the accusative feminine singular

- the accusative neuter singular

  • -en is used: - inall other combinations of case & gender - inall plurals
7 49 strong adjective declension
7.49 Strong adjective declension
  • “Strong” adjective endings are used if there is no determiner before the adjective whose ending clearly shows the case, gender and number of the noun. This happens:
  • when there is no determiner at all
  • after simple numerals - zwei, drei usw.
  • after certain plurals - viele, wenige, ein paar, mehrere, einige, etliche, folgende
7 51 strong adj endings numerals
7.51 Strong adj. endings: numerals
  • Acht fleißige StudentInnen waren da. (Eight hard-working students were there.)
  • Eine Begegnung mit drei alten Männern (A meeting with three old men.)
  • Der Bau vier neuer Schiffe (The construction of four new ships)
  • Seht ihr neunundneunzig rote Luftballons? (Do you see 99 red balloons?)
7 52 strong adjectives numerals 2
7.52 Strong adjectives : numerals (2)
  • BUT if a number is used after an article, then the endings on any following adjective are governed by the article - not the number.
  • Fünf kluge Schüler (BUT: Die fünf klugen Schüler)
  • Wegen fünf kluger Schüler (BUT: Wegen der fünf klugen Schüler)
  • Zwei artige Kinder (BUT: Seine zwei artigen Kinder)
7 53 strong adj endings plurals
7.53 Strong adj. endings : plurals
  • Mehrere richtige Antworten sind möglich. (Several correct answers are possible.)
  • Es gibt viele gute Gründe. (There are many good reasons.)
  • Trotz ein paar kleiner Schwierigkeiten. (Despite a few small difficulties)
  • Eine Stadt mit einigen alten Bauwerken (A town with a few old buildings)
7 54 quiz strong adjective endings
7.54 Quiz: strong adjective endings
  • Der Geschmack belgisch____ Bier___ (= The taste of Belgian beer)
  • Gibt es genug heiß____ Wasser für alle? (= Is there enough hot water for everyone?)
  • Er fand mehrer____ schwarz____ Löcher. (= He found several black holes.)
  • Wegen viel____ typisch____ Fehler. (= Because of many typical mistakes)
7 55 strong endings quiz answers
7.55 Strong endings quiz: answers
  • Der Geschmack belgischen Biers (= The taste of Belgian beer)
  • Gibt es genug heißes Wasser für alle? (= Is there enough hot water for everyone?)
  • Er fand mehrere schwarze Löcher. (= He found several black holes.)
  • Wegen vieler typischer Irrtümer (= Because of many typical mistakes)
7 56 mixed adjective declension
7.56 Mixed adjective declension
  • The mixed adjective declension uses weak and strong endings according to context.
  • The mixed adjective endings are used after the indefinite article and its equivalents:
  • ein - a, an (definite article)
  • kein - not a, no
  • possessives - mein, dein, sein, ihr / Ihr, unser, euer
7 57 mixed adjective endings
7.57 Mixed adjective endings
  • Mixed adjective endings are so called because they “mix” weak and strong adjective endings
  • Strong adjective endings are used with: - the nominative singular of all genders - the accusative feminine singular - the accusative neuter singular
  • The weak adjective ending -en is used: - inall other combinations of case & gender - inall plurals
7 59 adjectives ending in el
7.59 Adjectives ending in -el
  • Adjectives in -elalways drop the -e-of the stem when the adjective takes endings:
  • dunkel  ein dunkler Wald (NOT: dunkeler)
  • flexibel  sein flexibles Design
  • miserabel  der miserable Service
  • passabel  mit einer passablen Leistung
  • respektabel  ein respektables Wachstum
7 60 adjectives ending in er
7.60 Adjectives ending in -er
  • Foreign adjectives in -erand those with -au-or -eu-before the -er always drop the -e-:
  • makaber(foreign) die makabre Geschichte
  • sauer(-au-) deine saureMiene
  • teuer (-eu-) trotz teurer Geschenke
  • Other -eradjectives keep the -e- however:
  • munter  ein munteres Kind
7 61 quiz which endings
7.61 Quiz: Which endings?
  • Supply the appropriate case endings:

1) Welch__ Schüler gehört dies__ Pullover?

2) Ich öffnete dein__ Frau d___ Tür.

3) Wer zeigt d___ Autofahrern d__ Weg?

4) Dies___ jungen Mädchen gaben all ___ Lehrerinnen ein__ Blume.

7 62 answers which endings
7.62 Answers: Which endings?

How many correct endings did you find?

1) Welchem Schüler gehört dieser Pullover?

2) Ich öffnete deiner Frau die Tür.

3) Wer zeigt den Autofahrern den Weg?

4) Diese jungen Mädchen gaben allen Lehrerinnen eine Blume.