The Challenge of Establishing World-Class Universities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. The Challenge of Establishing World-Class Universities JamilSalmi Astana 13 June 2009

  2. natural lab experiment: U. of Malaya vs. NUS • early1960s: 2 branches of University of Malaya • today: • NUS ranked # 19 • UM only # 192

  3. outline of the presentation • defining the world-class university • the path to becoming a world-class university

  4. how do you recognize a world-class university? • everyone wants one • no one knows what it is • no one knows how to get one Philip G. Altbach

  5. defining the WCU • self-declaration

  6. vision of the University of Bath “to be a world class university, comprising an international community committed to partnerships with other world class institutions, inside and outside academia, to produce research of global significance and value and graduates with commitment and skills for life and work in the global community” .

  7. defining the WCU • self-declaration • reputation • rankings

  8. top 50 universities

  9. Characteristics of a World-Class University Alignment of Key Factors Concentration of Talent Students Teaching Staff Researchers Leading-Edge Research Top Graduates WCU Supportive Regulatory Framework Abundant Favorable Governance Public Budget Resources Endowment Revenues Tuition Fees Research Grants Resources Autonomy Academic Freedom Dynamic Technology Transfer Leadership Team Strategic Vision Culture of Excellence Source: Elaborated by Jamil Salmi

  10. concentration of talent • teachers and researchers • incoming students • undergraduate / graduate students balance

  11. weight of graduate students

  12. concentration of talent • teachers and researchers • incoming students • undergraduate / graduate students balance • international dimensions

  13. international dimensions • foreign students • Harvard (19%) • Cambridge (18%) • foreign faculty • Harvard (30%) • Oxford (36%) • Cambridge (33%)

  14. abundant resources • government funding • US spends 3.3% of GDP ($54,000 per student) • Europe (E25) only 1.3% ($13,500 per student) • endowments

  15. Comparison of US and UK Endowment Levels

  16. abundant resources • government funding • endowments • fees • research funding

  17. impact of the crisis • resources flows • government policies

  18. resources flows • reduced government funding for teaching, research and student aid • reduced resources for institutions as demand falls (new domestic and foreign students, dropouts)

  19. resource flows (II) • fewer resources from private sector (donations, contracts) • fall in stock market values reduces value of endowments and pension funds

  20. implications for governments • increase scholarships and establish / strengthen student loan programs • include tertiary education in economic stimulus plans • R&D • capacity building • entrepreneurship for innovation

  21. favorable governance • freedom from civil service rules (human resources, procurement, financial management) • management autonomy • flexibility and responsiveness with power to act • selection of leadership team • independent Board with outside representation

  22. U. Of Malaya vs. NUS • talent • UM: selection bias in favor of Bumiputras, less than 5% foreign students, no foreign professors • NUS: highly selective, 43% of graduates students are foreign, many foreign professors

  23. U. Of Malaya vs. NUS (II) • finance • UM: $118 million, $4,053 per student • NUS: $750 million endowment, $205 million, $6,300 per student

  24. U. Of Malaya vs. NUS (II) • governance • UM: restricted by government regulations and control, unable to hire top foreign professors • NUS: status of a private corporation, able to attract world-class foreign researchers • 52% of professors (9% from Malaysia) • 79% of researchers (11% from Malaysia)

  25. France and Germany • low in the rankings • civil service status and mindset • no tradition of competition

  26. Germany • “Excellence initiative” • competition • additional resources • governance reform

  27. France • world rankings have forced to ask questions • dual structure • “Grandes Ecoles” with best students, more resources and favorable governance, but no research • universities: “second best” students, but research vocation • autonomy reform

  28. outline of the presentation • defining the world-class university • the path to becoming a world-class university

  29. the path to glory • upgrading existing institutions • mergers • creating a new institution

  30. upgrading approach • less costly • challenge of creating a culture of excellence • focus on governance

  31. mergers approach • China, Russia, France, Denmark, Ireland • potential synergies • 1+1=3 • clash of cultures

  32. creating a new institution • University of Astana, Olin College of Engineering, KAUST, MMU, PSE, U of Luxembourg • higher costs • getting the right culture from the beginning

  33. common mistakes / elements of vulnerability • focus on the physical infrastructure • what about the programs, curriculum and pedagogical approach? • heavy reliance on foreign partners, especially faculty • need to attract / prepare national teachers and researchers

  34. common mistakes / elements of vulnerability (II) • capital costs covered, but little attention to operational costs and long-term financial sustainability

  35. who takes the initiative? • role of the State • favorable regulatory framework • funding • role of the institutions • leadership • strategic vision • culture of excellence

  36. Clemson University • land grant university focused on agricultural and mechanical crafts • changing region • strategic partnership with BMW to become premier automotive and sports car research U • aims to become # 20