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Chapter 12: Managing and Implementing Backups and Disaster Recovery

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Chapter 12: Managing and Implementing Backups and Disaster Recovery. Planning for Disaster Recovery. Administrators need to be prepared for the possibility of server failure and/or file and folder loss at all times Ensuring availability a key responsibility Windows Server 2003 features:

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planning for disaster recovery
Planning for Disaster Recovery
  • Administrators need to be prepared for the possibility of server failure and/or file and folder loss at all times
  • Ensuring availability a key responsibility
  • Windows Server 2003 features:
    • The Backup utility
    • Shadow Copies of Shared Volumes
    • Automated System Recovery
      • Recover configuration
      • Must be used with install CD
      • Applications and data need to be restored
    • Advanced startup options
    • The Recovery Console
      • Command line trouble shooting tool
backing up and restoring data
Backing Up and Restoring Data
  • Backup utility designed to restore an operating system or data in case of failure
  • Improved version of utility originally introduced in Windows 2000
backing up and restoring data continued
Backing Up and Restoring Data (continued)
  • Tasks that can be performed include:
    • Back up and restore files and folders
    • Schedule a backup
    • Back up Windows 2003 System State data
    • Restore the Active Directory database
    • Create an Automated System Recovery (ASR) backup
backup and restore concepts
Backup and Restore Concepts
  • Types of backups and backup hardware and software is dictated largely by the size and type of organization
  • A key issue is backup authority:
    • Administrators, Backup Operators, and Server Operators have broad authority
    • Other users may have some limited authority to back up certain files and folders
  • Two main Group Policy rights
    • Back up files and directories
    • Restore files and directories
backup types
Backup Types
  • Backup types include:
    • Normal backup
      • All selected files and folders
      • Clears the archive attribute
    • Incremental backup
      • Only files that have changed since last normal or incremental backup
      • Clears the archive attribute
      • Restore process is more complicated
backup types1
Backup Types
  • Differential backup
    • Only files that have changed since last normal or incremental backup
    • Does not clear the archive attribute
    • Backup grows incrementally
    • Restore process less complicated
  • Daily backup
    • Files or folders that were created or changed on the day of the backup
    • Archive attribute is not changed
  • Copy backup
    • Exactly the same as a normal backup
    • Doesn’t change the archive attribute
    • Intended as an archival copy
using the backup utility
Using the Backup Utility
  • Commonly used to back up critical data and operating system files
  • Can be used in two modes: Wizard mode and Advanced mode
  • Can be used to
    • Back up System State data
    • Restore Active Directory
    • Access Automated System Restore feature
scheduling backups
Scheduling Backups
  • Backups can be scheduled to occur without interaction from an administrator
  • Can schedule backups daily, weekly, monthly, predefined times, predefined days
backing up and restoring system state data
Backing Up and Restoring System State Data
  • System State data includes:
    • Registry (always)
    • COM+ Class Registration database (always)
    • Boot files (always)
    • Certificate Services database (if installed)
    • Active Directory (on domain controllers)
    • SYSVOL directory (on domain controllers)
      • Important user configuration files
      • Logon Scripts
      • Default Profiles
      • System policy files
    • Cluster service (if part of a cluster)
    • IIS Metadirectory (if IIS is installed)
    • System files (always)
backing up and restoring system state data continued
Backing Up and Restoring System State Data (continued)
  • These components should be backed up with
    • Standard backups
    • Directed System State backups
  • Cannot back up individual components
  • To restore
    • Restart
    • Choose Directory Services Restore mode advanced startup
  • To restore Active Directory objects
    • Must use authoritative restore so that replication doesn’t overwrite corrections
shadow copies of shared folders
Shadow Copies of Shared Folders
  • Purpose of this utility is to make recovery of user files in shared folders easy without requiring an administrator
  • Advantages for users:
    • Restoration of accidentally deleted files
    • Recovery of previous versions of files
    • Comparison of previous version to current version
  • Shadow Copies not enabled by default, must be explicitly enabled from Properties of a drive
  • Allows for Backup of open files
shadow copies of shared folders continued
Shadow Copies of Shared Folders (continued)
  • Shadow Copies is enabled for entire volume (cannot shadow specific files or folders)
  • Copies are made on a pre-defined schedule
  • By default, Shadow Copies uses 10% of available disk space (minimum 100 MB)
    • When limit is reached, older copies are deleted
previous versions
Previous Versions
  • Network users must install additional software on their systems to access previous versions of files via Shadow Copies
  • Client software provided in MSI format at %systemroot%\system32\clients\twclient\X86 (for Intel-based system)
    • Twcli32.msi
  • Adds an additional tab (Previous Versions) to Properties of files stored in shared Folders
automated system recovery
Automated System Recovery
  • This utility was introduced in Windows Server 2003
    • Main purpose is to restore a system to a functional state
    • Allows user to restore system configuration settings, not data files
    • Replaces ERD on earlier systems
  • Two different elements:
    • ASR backup (accessed from Backup Utility)
    • Floppy disk that contains information about backup, disk configuration, and how to perform a restore
automated system recovery continued
Automated System Recovery (continued)
  • User data files should be backed up before ASR and restored after ASR
  • ASR backup should be done whenever system configuration is changed
  • ASR backup created using the Automated System Recovery Wizard
  • To recover, boot from Windows CD, select Repair option, use ASR floppy and backup to restore settings
advanced startup options
Advanced Startup Options
  • Used to troubleshoot startup problems
  • Provides a safe mode
    • Only loads the default minimal required Windows Server 2003 settings and device drivers
  • Windows Advanced Startup Options is accessed during system startup
    • Press F8 from Boot Loader Operating System Selection menu
last known good configuration
Last Known Good Configuration
  • Allows you to recover from failed driver and registry changes
  • You should not log on to your server if problems are evident during boot process because any incorrect configuration changes will update last known good configuration
  • Cannot be used to resolve problems such as missing or corrupt files
the recovery console
The Recovery Console
  • The Recovery Console is an advanced tool for experienced administrators
  • It is used to:
    • Start and stop services
    • Format drives
    • Read and write data on a local hard drive
    • Copy files from a floppy or CD to a local hard drive
    • Perform administrative tasks
      • Must logon with AD restore password
installing the recovery console
Installing the Recovery Console
  • Two ways to start Recovery Console:
    • Run it from CD after a serious error by booting from the CD
    • Install on computer permanently
  • Once it is installed, it will be an option in the list of available operating systems during the initial boot process
  • Recovery Console can only be run by an administrator
installing the recovery console continued
Installing the Recovery Console (continued)
  • Variety of commands available through Recovery Console
  • Use the Help command within the Console for a complete list of commands
  • Common commands include:
    • copy
    • disable / enable– services or device drivers
    • exit – restarts computer
    • fixboot – writes a new partition boot sector
    • fixmbr – repairs the master boot record
    • listsvc – List all services