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DISASTER RISK REDUCTION. A PRIMER OF KNOWLEDGE THAT CAN MULTIPLY AND SPILL OVER FOR THE BENEFIT OF MILLIONS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA http://www.gadr.giees.uncc.edu.

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disaster risk reduction

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

A PRIMER OF KNOWLEDGE THAT CAN MULTIPLY AND SPILL OVER FOR THE BENEFIT OF MILLIONS

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA

http://www.gadr.giees.uncc.edu

slide2

REMEMBERING 2O10: PART 2APRIL - JULY VOLCANIC ERUPTION, OIL LEAK; EARTHQUAKES, SEVERE WINDSTORMS, FLOODS, LANDSLIDES, …

impacted nations

IMPACTED NATIONS

Indonesia, China, Brazil, Taiwan, Iceland, Europe (Poland, Germany, Hungary, Czech Republic), Mexico, USA (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida), …

societal impacts during 2010
Volcanic ash cloud over Europe paralyzed air travel in Europe for weeks and cost the industry over $2 B.

Oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico that continued for over 82 days caused an environmental disaster, cost tens of billions, and changed the way of life for millions.

SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010
slide6

Unlike the subduction zone volcanoes along the Pacific Rim where the slow rise of magma gives early seismic warnings that an eruption is imminent, Iceland's hot spot volcanoes tend to erupt under ice sheets with little warning.

eruption of the eyjafjallaj kull volcano in southern iceland

Eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Southern Iceland

MARCH 20 and APRIL 14, 2010

slide9

The Eyjafjallajökull (AYA-feeyapla-yurkul) volcano in Southern Iceland, part of the volcanic process that originally formed Iceland, erupted a few minutes before midnight on Saturday, March 20th

slide10

ERUPTION HISTORYEyjafjallajökull last erupted in 1821 in what was called a "lazy" eruption, which lasted almost two years.

slide23

A week of airspace closures caused by the ash threat to planes created the worst breakdown in civil aviation in Europe since World War II, which caused more than 100,000 flights to be canceled and airlines to lose over $2 billion.

Scientists said the 800-meter fissure caused by the eruption was growing and heading towards the Myrdalsjokall glacier, which sits atop the powerful Katla volcano

drought

DROUGHT

CONTINUES IN THE CARIBBEAN

CONTINUES IN WESTERN CHINA

earthquakes

EARTHQUAKES

INDONESIA

CHINA

TAIWAN

CHILE

m7 7 earthquake strikes indonesia near epicenter of 2004 quake

M7.7 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES INDONESIA NEAR EPICENTER OF 2004 QUAKE

SUBDUCTION ZONE OF SUNDA AND INDO-AUSTRALIA PLATES

5:15 AM, APRIL 7, 2010

slide28

This earthquake, although much less powerful than the 2004 earthquake, awakened memories of the December 26, 2004 earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami that killed over 216,000 people in 14 countries and caused losses of over $10 B.

slide31

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a watch for tsunamis in Sumatra and Indian Ocean countries, but a destructive ocean surge never happened.

an intraplate m6 9 earthquake strikes western china

AN INTRAPLATE, M6.9 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES WESTERN CHINA

STRONG AFTERSHOCKS FOLLOWED THE MAIN SHOCK

7:49 AM OCCURRENCE WAS DEADLY FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN

APRIL 14, 2010

slide33

This earthquake didn't occur where the Indo-Australia and Eurasia plates meet; instead, it was an intraplate earthquake, occurring in the Tibetan plateau within the Eurasian plate.

The Tibetan Plateau was created, along with the Himalayas, about 50 million years ago, as part of the Indian subcontinent began to collide with Eurasia.

slide34

The M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan Province, which was 32 x stronger, was generated on the Longmenshan fault system.

slide36

The earthquake was centered in the township of Jiegu, in the county of Yushu, a rural, mountainous area that is part of the Tibetan Plateau populated mainly by farmers, sheepherders, and trades people. Qamdo, Tibet is the largest city near the epicenter.

slide38

More than 90 % of the sun-dried mud brick and wood houses and buildings in the epicentral area collapsed, killing an estimated 1,144 people and injuring about 10,000..

slide40

An estimated 70 % percent of the schools were destroyed, and residents, paramilitary, and soldiers used shovels in a frantic effort to save children trapped in the rumble.

slide44

The minority nationalities living in the epicentral region don't normally keep the dead overnight, so the funerals that occurred April 14th made accurate estimates of the death toll impossible.

Communication and transportation systems in the area were knocked out, slowing local disaster assistance and search and rescue efforts, and limiting international assistance.

slide46

Temperatures in the mountainous Tibetan plateau 5 km above sea level can reach minus six degrees at night, so the government quickly arranged to send five thousand tents and fifty thousand blankets for the homeless survivors.

The government allocated $30 million for relief and mobilized more than 5,000 soldiers,medical workers and other rescue workers to join with 700 troops already on the ground.

floods

FLOODS

BRAZIL (RIO DE JANEIRO)

EUROPE

rivers burst banks and breach dams in central europe after weeks of rain

RIVERS BURST BANKS AND BREACH DAMS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AFTER WEEKS OF RAIN

POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH REPUBLIC, …

MAY – JUNE, 2010

slide50

The heaviest rains in over a decade forced thousands along rain swollen rivers in Poland, Germany, and Hungary to evacuate from their homes, breached dikes and sand bag dams, and caused damage to homes, and infrastructure estimated at over $2.5 billion.

landslides

LANDSLIDES

BRAZIL (RIO DE JANEIRO)

TAIWAN

floods and mudslides paralyze brazil

FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES PARALYZE BRAZIL

WORST IN 50 YEARS

APRIL 7, 2010

slide55

Flooding from torrential rains and mudslides claimed at least 200 lives in Brazil's Rio de Janeiro City and State.

slide57

10,000 homes, mostly in the slums where about a fifth of Rio's people live, often in shacks that are vulnerable to heavy rains were severely impacted by mudslides

landslide in taiwan

LANDSLIDE IN TAIWAN

EXACERBATED BY M6.5 EARTHQUAKE AND RAIN

APRIL 26, 2010

reduction of el nino conditions
REDUCTION OF EL NINO CONDITIONS

The reduction of El Ninoconditions in the Pacific created a favorable physical environment for an increase in Atlantic and Caribbean storms during 2010.

tropical storm hurricane alex the first named tropical storm of the 2010 atlantic hurricane season

TROPICAL STORM – HURRICANE ALEX: The first named tropical storm of the 2010 Atlantic Hurricane Season

JUNE 26 - JULY 1, 2010

slide67

After formation on June 25, a tropical storm warning was issued for the east coast of Quintana Roo on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula and the east coast of Belize

slide68

In the central Caribbean Sea, the system produced heavy rainfall in the Dominican Republic that caused flooding and prompted the evacuation of more than 3,000 people.

slide70

After making landfall in Belize and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, Tropical Storm Alex strengthened again as it entered the very warm waters of the Bay of Campeche.

slide71

On the evening of June 28, a hurricane warning was issued for the coast of Texas, south of Baffin Bay to the mouth of the Rio Grande, and by the Mexican Government from the Rio Grande south to La Cruz.

slide73

Although Alex’s path slowed work on the Gulf Oil Spill during its 71st day, the good news is that the storm did not accelerate movement of the spill eastward into the Atlantic.

slide74

TROPICAL STORM BONNIE: The second named tropical storm of the 2010 Atlantic Hurricane Season Forms in the Bahamas

JULY 22-24, 2010

floods76

FLOODS

BRAZIL

EUROPE

LAREDO (USA) NUEVO LAREDO (MEXICO)

rivers burst banks and breach dams in central europe after weeks of rain77

RIVERS BURST BANKS AND BREACH DAMS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AFTER WEEKS OF RAIN

POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH REPUBLIC, …

MAY – JUNE, 2010

slide78

The heaviest rains in over a decade forced thousands along rain swollen rivers in Poland, Germany, and Hungary to evacuate from their homes, breached dikes and sand bag dams, and caused damage to homes, and infrastructure estimated at over $2.5 billion.

oil spills and leaks

OIL SPILLS AND LEAKS

GULF OF MEXICO

great gulf of mexico oil spill of 2010

“GREAT GULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL OF 2010”

COASTS OF LOUISANA, ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, AND FLORIDA WERE IMPACTED BY A 5 MILLION BARREL OIL LEAK THAT CAUSED A HUGE ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER

APRIL 22- AUGUST ???, 2010

slide81

OIL RIG EXPLOSION AND COLLAPSE CAUSED OIL LEAK ON OCEAN FLOOR THAT LASTED OVER 82 DAYS AND BECAME THE WORST ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER IN USA HISTORY

slide86

The mile-deep, underwater leak added an estimated 35,000 to 60,000 barrels of oil a day into the Gulf, and fed a massive slick on the surface of the water that eventually impacted the environment, economic stability, and way of life of the entire gulf coast

slide88

British Petroleum scrambled to stop the leak by using techniques known to be at the margins of existing capability in deep water locations, butno one technique was immediately successful for a variety of reasons.

working at the margin of technological capability
Use of robots to repair blowout preventers

Oil containment booms

Controlled Burning

Oil skimmers

Oil dispersal chemicals

Oil containment domes

Super tanker, “A Whale”

A relief oil well

WORKING AT THE MARGIN OF TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITY
slide90

RESPONSE AND CLEAN-UP OPERATIONS WERE HINDERED BY HIGH WINDS AND WAVES, POLITICAL INDECISION AND DECISIONS,AND THE ARRIVAL OF TROPICAL STORM-HURRICANEALEXIN THE WESTERN GULF

slide91

Strong winds and high tides initially complicated the work of emergency crews that began a massive work across the Gulf of Mexico to shut off, respond to, manage the oil leak, and meet the needs of people .

slide96

Emergency crews used a number of methods to stop the spread of oil: 1) laying containment booms, 2) burning small contained pools of oil, and 3) spreading chemicals to disperse the oil, ,,, but, all of these “good weather” methods FAILED.

the disaster started big and grew worse over the next 105 days

THE DISASTER STARTED BIG AND GREW WORSE OVER THE NEXT 105 DAYS

The leak became a serious long-term threat to fishermen's livelihoods, marine habitats, beaches, wildlife, human health, tourism, and the way of life itself

hurricane alex slows response and clean up
HURRICANE ALEX SLOWS RESPONSE AND CLEAN-UP
  • For safety reasons due to the choppy seas created by Hurricane Alex, ships and barges were moved from open waters to sheltered areas and skimming and drilling operations were put on hold.
hurricane alex helps beach clean up
HURRICANE ALEX “HELPS” BEACH CLEAN-UP
  • Cleanup crews on the LA, MS, AL, and FL beaches were able to wash sand more effectively in locations where the oil had washed ashore as a result of the high tidal surges created by Hurricane Alex.
a whale becomes part of clean up effort
“A WHALE” BECOMES PART OF CLEAN UP EFFORT
  • The 1,100-foot (335 m-long) ore and oil carrier named, "A Whale,” can collect 500,000 barrels (21 million gallons) per day of contaminated water, remove the oil, and return the “clean” water to the Gulf.
slide119

BP is hoping that the giant Taiwanese supertanker, "A Whale," can exponentially boost the amount of oil and water mix being scooped up from the surface of the Gulf, while continuing to drill relief wells that are expected to be completed in mid-August.

slide120

On July 5th, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration expanded the area closed to fishing in the Gulf beyond the current northwestern boundary off Louisiana, bringing to the closure to 210,258 sq km (81,181 sq mi), 33.5 percent of the Gulf’s Federal waters.

slide121

After 75 days, the oil leak has fouled some 715 km (444 mi ) of shoreline in four southeastern US states, killed wildlife, stopped most of the region's multi-billion-dollar fishing industry, and significantly slowed tourism.

slide122

The Gulf oil leak ( “spill” ) is now the worst in history, surpassing the damage done by the Exxon Valdez tanker that spilled 11 million gallons of oil into the ecologically sensitive Prince William Sound, AK in 1989.

bp said on monday july 5 th that it had spent 3 12 billion usd on the gulf of mexico oil disaster

BP said on Monday, July 5th, that it had spent $3.12 billion USD on the Gulf of Mexico oil disaster