Communication and Culture. John A. Cagle. What is culture?. Sir Edward Tylor’s definition in 1871 (first use of this term): “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”.
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John A. Cagle
Freedom cultures will think about, perceive, and behave toward the world differently.
Elashmawi & Harris 1993
High-context cultures cultures will think about, perceive, and behave toward the world differently.
Insiders and outsiders clearly distinguished
Cultural patterns ingrained, slow change
Less dependent on context
Insiders and outsiders less clearly distinguished
Cultural patterns change fasterEdward T. Hall's Model
A person’s word
Responsibility fororganizational error
Is his or her bond
Taken by top level
Get it in writing
Pushed to lowest level
Joseph P. Bailey, “The Retail Sector and the Internet Economy,” http://e-conomy.berkeley.edu/conferences/9-2000/EC-conference2000_papers/bailey.pdf
1. What are the communicative events, and their components, in a community?
2. What are the relationships among them?
3. What capabilities and states do they have, in general, and in particular events?
4. How do they work?
The concept of a message is taken as implying the sharing (real or imputed) of a code (or codes) in terms of which a message is intelligible to participants, minimally an addressor and addressee, in an event constituted by transmission of the message, and characterized by a channel, a setting or context, a definite form or shape in the message, and a topic or comment.
The purposes, conscious and unconscious, the functions, intended and unintended, perceived and unperceived, of communicative events for their participants are here treated as questions of the states in which they engage in them, and of the norms by which they judge them.
FOCUS ON THE ADDRESSOR entails such expressive or emotive functions as identification of the source, expression of attitude toward one or another component or the situation as a whole, thinking aloud, etc.
FOCUS ON THE ADDRESSEE entails such directive or conative functions as identification of the destination, and the ways in which the events and message may be governed by anticipation of the attitude of the destination. RHETORIC, PERSUASION, APPEAL, and DIRECTION enter here.
FOCUS ON CHANNELS intended and unintended, perceived and unperceived, of communicative events for their participants are here treated as questions of the states in which they engage in them, and of the norms by which they judge them. entails such phatic functions as have to do with the maintenance of contact and control of noise, both physical and psychological.
FOCUS ON CODES entails such functions as are involved in learning, analysis, devising of writing systems, checking code in conversation, etc.
FOCUS ON SETTINGS entails all that is considered contextual, apart from the event itself, verbal and nonverbal, etc.
FOCUS ON MESSAGE-FORM entails such functions as proof-reading, mimicry, poetic and stylistic concerns, etc.
FOCUS ON TOPIC intended and unintended, perceived and unperceived, of communicative events for their participants are here treated as questions of the states in which they engage in them, and of the norms by which they judge them. entails such functions as having to do with reference to objects in the world, to people, to events, to ideas, etc.--all we usually associate with content.
FOCUS ON THE EVENT ITSELF entails whatever is comprised under metacommunicative types of function.