Organizational Dimensions Functional Level/ Classification External Dimensions* Geographic Location MaritalStatus WorkContent/Field Internal Dimensions* Mgmt.Status Income Age Personality ParentalStatus PersonalHabits Race Division/Dept./Unit/Group RecreationalHabits Appearance SexualOrientation Ethnicity UnionAffiliation PhysicalAbility WorkExperience Religion EducationalBackground WorkLocation Seniority The Four Layers of Diversity Diversity: the host of individual differences that make people different from and similar to each other. Gender Source: L Gardenswartz and A Rowe, Diverse Teams at Work: Capitalizing on the Power of Diversity (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994), p. 33
Layers of Diversity • First layer – Personality Personality is at the center of the diversity wheel. Personality is at the center because it represents a stable set of characteristics that is responsible for a person’s identity. • Second layer – Internal Dimensions a set of internal dimensions – as surface-level dimensions of diversity. These dimensions, for the most part, are not within our control, but they strongly influence our attitudes and expectations and assumptions about others, which in turn, influence our behavior. • Third layer – External Dimensions external influences – as secondary dimensions of diversity. They represent individual differences that we have a greater ability to influence or control. These dimensions also exert a significant influence on our perceptions, behavior, and attitudes. • The final layer – Organizational dimensions such as seniority, job title and function, and work location.
Pros and Cons of Diversity • Social categorization theory • Similarity leads to liking and attraction The more homogeneous a work group, the higher the member commitment and group cohesion, and the lower the amount of interpersonal conflicts Homogeneity is better than heterogeneity in terms of affecting work-related attitudes, behavior, and performance.
Pros and Cons of Diversity • Information/Decision-Making Theory • Diversity leads to better task-relevant processes and decision-making Diversity groups should outperform homogeneous groups . The logic of this theory was described as follows: The idea is that diverse groups are more likely to possess a broader range of task-relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities that are distinct and nonredundant and to have different opinions and perspectives, on the task at hand. This not only gives diverse groups a larger pool of resources, but may also have other beneficial effects
Analysis of the various dimensions of diversity helps the business communicator transmit messages that are more understandable and acceptable to the members of that dimension of diversity.
The Global Business Environment As the world economy becomes globalize, more and more firms are conducting international operations. • MNC (Multinational Corporations) – firms that conduct significant business activities outside their home countries and that view the world as their marketplace For all businesspeople who travel internationally – the ability to bridge cultural differences in written and oral communication is crucial.
Culture and Communication • Culture ? Culture as mental programming (Hofstede, 1991) • Three levels of uniqueness in Human Mental Programming Specific to individual Inherited and learned Personality Specific to group or category Learned Culture Universal Inherited Human nature
Culture the shared customs, beliefs, and social structures of human society Many components of culture – • Languages • Rules • Myths • Family patterns • Political systems - determine the way people communicate
Cultural Influences on OB Organizational culture • Economic/technological setting • Political/legal setting • Ethnic background • Religion • Personal values/ethics • Attitudes • Assumptions • Expectations • Societal Culture • Customs • Language Organizational behavior
Your Experience • I have worked with people of other cultures at work or school. • A=Yes, B=No • I have experienced a conflict or been frustrated when working with people of other cultures. • A = Yes, B=No
Your Experience • The conflict I experienced was due to cultural differences. • A=Yes, B=No, C= I don’t know • Learning about different cultures is interesting to me. • 1=Strongly Disagree, 3= Neutral, 5= Strongly Agree
Ethnocentrism: A Cultural Roadblock • Ethnocentrismis the belief that one’s native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others • How do you overcome this?
Cultural Intelligence • Cultural intelligence The ability to interpret ambiguous cross-cultural situations accurately. • Involves: • Recognizing different values and practices • Understanding the meaning of others’ actions • Perspective on one’s own ways
Test Your Knowledge • A high performing manager was chosen for a foreign assignment. She tells a colleague “I plan on just doing business the way I always do. Why change what works?” People in the new culture may perceive her to be…. • Ethnocentric • Culturally intelligent
The Challenge of International and Cross-Cultural Business Communication • Language Differences • Nonverbal Communication Differences Facial expressions, body movements, and gestures • Other Cultural Differences The most important differences are in the ways people in other cultures think and feel : values, attitudes, religions, political systems, and social orders.
Two common barriers to successful cross cultural communication • Ethnocentrism the tendency to judge other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture In order to counter ethnocentric tendencies, you must adapt and be willing to accommodate communication differences that exist in other cultures. Successful communication accommodates the customs, behaviors, and discussion topic of your foreign audience. • Language limitation
the ways people in other cultures think and feel : • VALUES: a society’s ideas about what is good or bad, right or wrong Values determine how individuals will probably respond in any given circumstances. Hofstede’s Value Dimensions • framework for understanding how basic values underlie organizational behavior • based on his research on more than 116,000 people in 50 countries sample - IBM
Four value dimensions: • Power distance Penerimaan masyarakat terhadap ketidak-sederajadan. • Individualism vs Collectivism Masyarakat individualis memiliki hubungan yang renggang, setiap orang diharapkan untuk mengurus diri sendiri dan anggota keluarga inti. Masyarakat kolektivis memiliki hubungan yang erat, saling melindungi dan saling loyal. • Masculinity vs Femininity Pada masyarakat maskulin peran jenis dibedakan secara tegas, sedang pada masyarakat feminin perbedaan peran jenis kabur dan overlap. • Uncertainty avoidance Sejauh mana anggota masyarakat merasa terancam oleh situasi yang tidak pasti dan belum pernah mengalami
Four value dimensions: HIGH LOW
High vs. Low Context Cultures • Low context cultures Communication in low context cultures depends on explicit written and verbal message. Germany, Switzerland, the Scandinavian countries, USA • High context cultures communication in high context cultures depends not only on the message itself but also on everything that surrounds the explicit message, including nonverbal message China, Korea, Japan, the Arab countries
High vs. Low Context Cultures High-Context • Establish social trust first • Value personal relations and goodwill • Negotiations slow and ritualistic • Chinese • Korean • Japanese • Vietnamese Low-Context • Get down to business first • Value expertise and performance • Agreement by specific, legalistic contract • Negotiations as efficient as possible • German • Swiss • Scandinavian • North American
Adding Context to International Communication Communication context directly influences communication style. Several factors affect communication in context cultures: • Personal Relationship • Timing • Level of Formality • Body language • Eye contact • Personal space • Clothing
Guidelines for Successful Cross-Cultural Communication Basic Guidelines • Review the Foundations and Principles of Business Communication receiver understanding, necessary receiver response, a favorable relationship, goodwill for organization • Analyze Your Own Culture • Develop the Ability to Be Open to and Accepting of Other Cultures • Learn All You Can About the Other Culture and Apply What You • Keep Your Message Short and Simple When Using With Members of Another Culture
Guidelines for Successful Cross-Cultural Communication Cont… Basic Guidelines Cont… • Use Short, Simple Phrases and Sentences When Using an Interpreter • Practice With Your Interpreter • Select Only Translators Who Are Qualified to Translate the Type of Written Message You Are Sending • Provide for Back Translation of Your Written Messages
MENGELOLA BERANEKA MACAM TENAGA KERJA: PRAKTEK SAAT INI • Apakah perusahaan peduli dengan perbedaan? • Apakah perbedaan merupakan agenda perusahaan pada saat ini? • Mengapa perusahaan ikut serta dalam upaya mengelola perbedaan (diversity management efforts) • karena tekanan pemerintah (29%) • kesadaran dari para manajer senior tentang pentingnya program manajemen perbedaan (diversity management programs) (95%) • diakui adanya kebutuhan untuk menarik dan mempertahankan tenaga kerja trampil (90%)
Apa yang dilakukan perusahaan saat ini dengan adanya berbagai macam perbedaan? • Affirmative action plans (laws): legislation designed to give employment opportunities to groups that have been underrepresented in the workforce (e.g. women, minorities) • Diversity management programs: programs in which employees are thought to celebrate the differences between people and in which organizations create supportive work environments for women and minorities
Apa yang dilakukan perusahaan untuk memelihara perbedaan tenaga kerja? • promoting policies that discourage sexual harassment (93%) • providing physical access for employees with physical disabilities (76%) • offering flexible work schedules (66%) • allowing days for religious holidays (58%) • offering parental leaves (57%)
Berbagai macam program manajemen perbedaan (diversity management programs) • Awareness-Based Diversity Training • a type of diversity management program to make people more aware of diversity issues in the workplace and get them to recognize the underlying assumptions they make about people • increase knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity • challenge existing assumptions • eliminate stereotypes • Skills-Based Diversity Training • an approach to diversity management that develop people’s skills in managing diversity • Cross cultural understanding, intercultural communication, facilitation skills, flexibility and adaptability Kedua pendekatan pelatihan tersebut memiliki tujuan jangka panjang yang sama: berusaha keras untuk membuat interaksi antara kelompok yang berbeda-beda menjadi lebih mudah dan lebih efektif
Diversity Management: Two Major Approaches to Training Awareness-Based Diversity Training Skills-Based Diversity Training • increase knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity • challenge existing assumptions • eliminate stereotypes • develop new diversity skills • strengthen current diversity skills Improved quality of interaction with people from diverse groups Organization’s competitive position is enhanced Levels of morale, productivity, and creativity are raised
Diversity management pada umumnya efektif • Fakta: Diversity is good business • Pedoman untuk sukses • Actively pursue the best people • Make sure that people accepted and fit in • Educate everyone • Assess how you’re doing • Pay attention to details • Plan for the future
Menghindari kesulitan dalam mengelola perbedaan (diversity management) • Focus on a range of differences between people – not stereotypes • Managers should not treat someone as special because s/he is a member of a certain group • Managing diversity requires total management support