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Agenda

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  1. Il modello di contrattazione collettiva tedesco, l’andamento dei salari e la strategia di coordinamento a livello europeo Reinhard Bahnmüller Convegno “Germania, Italia, Europa:le risposte alla crisi. Le strategie dell e istituzioni, dell a politica e dei sindacati a confronto”, 21/22 ottobre 2010, Università di Bologna

  2. Agenda • The German Collective Bargaining System: Structure and Current Developments • The German Wage Development in National and European Context and the coordination rule of the ETUC • Conclusions

  3. The dual system of workers’ interest representation

  4. Main Tendencies of the Bargaining System:(1) Decline of collective bargaining coverage Collective bargaining coverage in Germany 1998-2009,in % of all employees 4 Source: IAB

  5. Employees covered by collective agreements 2009 Companies covered by collective agreements 2009 Source: IAB-Betriebspanel


  6. Main Tendencies in the Collective Bargaining System • Decentralisation of the negotiation system: From sectoral level to company level • Differentiation of normative provisions according to the productivity of a single company and not the sector • Fragmentation of the bargaining landscape by downsizing the scope of collective agreements (several agreements for single branches of a sector, company agreements, agreements for special groups of employees etc.)

  7. Consequences • Erosion of unions’ institutionalised power • Metamorphosis of the collective bargaining system => Transition to a two tiered collective bargaining model • Weakening of common labour standards • Increasing drift between sectoral agreed labour standards and effective labour standards

  8. Numbers of derogations allowed by the collective actors in the German chemical industry 1994 - 2010 Employees affected 2007: ca. 10% Source: IG BCE

  9. Contract periods of company derogation agreements in the metalworking industry („Pforzheim Agreement“) (in % of all such agreements) Source: IG Metall; Haipeter 2009, p. 155

  10. Trade-off for derogation agreements in the German metalworking industry (in % of the derogation agreements) Source: IG Metall; Haipeter 2009, p. 155

  11. Decentralization and opening clauses – Opportunity for the unions to regain organisational power? • Yes – but only under certain circumstances: • Minimum of union structure and density • Offensive and participative strategy • Development of own objectives • High degree of transparency and publicity • Believable balance of the results

  12. Development of competitiveness in prices (Based on unit labour costs, 4/1998 - 1/2010, in %) Soource: EZB

  13. Development of real labour costs 2000-2009(Annual changes in %) Source: AMECO, quotet from Schulten 2010

  14. Wage development in the European context Increases of real negotiated wages (deflated) in the Euro Zone 2000-2009 (Changes in %) Source: WSI

  15. Source: EUCOBAN Negotiated wages in the European metalworking industry 2000-2008Balance of distribution according to the coordination rule of the EMF: Value of the whole agreement (VOWA) minus national inflation rate minus increase of productivity (national economy) (Annual changes in %)

  16. National balance of distribution for Germany 2000-2010

  17. Negotiated wages, effective wages and real wages (deflated) in Germany 2000-2009 (Annual changes in %) Wage increase in Germany Source: Statistisches Bundesamt, WSI-Tarifarchiv

  18. Thank you for your attention!