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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:India Section 2:Muslim Nations Section 3:Mountain Kingdoms, Island republics Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. RegionsHome to nearly one-fourth of the world’s people, South Asia plays an important role in world affairs. India is the world’s most populous democracy and is becoming one of the world’s largest economies. Pakistan, a major Muslim nation, is an ally of the United States in the war on terrorism, and its economy is growing as well. How do a country’s resources affect its role in world affairs? Chapter Intro 1

  4. Section 1: India Patterns of economic activity result in global interdependence.India is a vast country with a large and varied population. In recent years, India has become a key player in the global economy. Chapter Intro 2

  5. Section 2: Muslim Nations All living things are dependent on one another and their surroundings for survival.Millions of people in Pakistan and Bangladesh make their living by farming. Natural disasters, such as flooding and drought, however, often threaten their livelihoods. Chapter Intro 2

  6. Section 3: Mountain Kingdoms, Island Republics Cooperation and conflict among people have an effect on the Earth’s surface.Ethnic and religious conflicts continue to be a challenge in South Asia’s mountain kingdoms and island republics. Chapter Intro 2

  7. Chapter Intro-End

  8. Patterns of economic activity result in global interdependence. Section 1-Main Idea

  9. Content Vocabulary green revolution jute cottage industry outsourcing Academic Vocabulary overlap fundamental professional Section 1-Key Terms

  10. What do you think it might be like to carry hundreds of bricks for up to 12 hours per day? In India, brickworkers need plenty of energy to get through a workday, since they are paid based upon the amount of work they do. The brick-making industry, however, provides men and women with steady work and allows families to live and work together at the plant site. India’s economy has grown dramatically in the past 40 years. To learn more about India’s economy and how it is connected to—and dependent upon—other nations, read this section. Section 1-Key Terms

  11. A B C Do you think it’s fair that some Indian workers are paid for the amount of work they do rather than the hours they work? A. Yes B. No C.Don’t know Section 1-Polling Question

  12. American law firms are joining the money-saving movement to outsource work to India. Types of jobs outsourced include the preparation of documents to be computerized and creation of common legal papers. The wage for such work in the United States can be $120 an hour, but in India the wage is $40 an hour. Section 1

  13. India’s Government India has a democratic government in the form of a federal republic. Section 1

  14. India’s Government (cont.) With more than a billion people, India is the world’s largest democracy. It is a federal republic, with each having different responsibilities. When the powers of the national and state governments overlap, the national law must be followed. Section 1

  15. India’s Government (cont.) India has 28 states, some of which are dominated by a particular ethnic or religious group or language. India has seven union territories, small political areas directly under the control of the national government. Languagesof India Section 1

  16. India’s Government (cont.) India’s national government has three branches—executive, legislative, and judicial—that operate under the principle of separation of powers. Each branch of government has specific rights and responsibilities that the other branches cannot interfere with. Section 1

  17. India’s Government (cont.) India’s head of state is a president, but the duties of that position are mainly ceremonial. Executive power lies with the prime minister, who leads the government and sets policy. Section 1

  18. India’s Government (cont.) India’s Supreme Court interprets laws to see if they uphold the country’s constitution. India’s constitution is one of the longest and most detailed in the world. It guarantees all citizens certain fundamental and general rights and also lists citizens’ duties. Section 1

  19. A B C D Which of the following is one of India’s legislative houses? A.House of Commons B.Council of States C.Senate D.General Assembly Section 1

  20. India’s Economy India has shifted from a largely government-run economy toward a free market economy. Section 1

  21. India’s Economy(cont.) India has one of the world’s most rapidly growing economies, but with such a large population, not enough jobs exist and many residents remain poor. Nearly 75 percent of Indian workers are farmers, and more than half of India’s land is used for raising such crops as rice, wheat, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and jute. Section 1

  22. India’s Economy(cont.) India produces most of the food it needs, having benefited from the green revolution, a set of changes that modernized agriculture and greatly increased food production in the 1970s. India ranks as one of the world’s top coal producers and also mines iron ore, manganese, bauxite, and diamonds. Section 1

  23. India’s Economy(cont.) In recent years, India’s government has built fish processing plants and invested in ocean-going ships for deep-sea fishing for exporting. Section 1

  24. India’s Economy(cont.) India’s cottage industries involve people working in their homes and using their own equipment to craft pottery, spin and weave cloth, or create metal or wooden items. These items can then be sold to individuals or to companies for resale or export. Section 1

  25. India’s Economy(cont.) Textile factories, which employ the most manufacturing workers, produce cotton, jute, and synthetic, or human-made, fabrics. Food-processing plants also provide many jobs, although mainly around harvest time. Other factory workers are employed in heavy industry and make steel, locomotives, trucks, and chemicals. Section 1

  26. India’s Economy(cont.) India’s service industries are booming. Many of India’s software developers and technical support people work for American companies. In a practice known as outsourcing, many American businesses hire overseas workers to do certain jobs. Section 1

  27. India’s Economy(cont.) Outsourcing work to India is popular because wages there are low and because the country has large numbers of workers who are educated, skilled, and fluent in English. India also has a large number of doctors, scientists, and engineers. These professionals, too, are increasingly doing outsourced work, such as research and writing, for American companies. Section 1

  28. A B C D How much of India’s land is used for farming? A.More than half B.Less than half C. All of it D. None of it Section 1

  29. Section 1-End

  30. All living things are dependent on one another and their surroundings for survival. Section 2-Main Idea

  31. Content Vocabulary nationalize ship breaking Academic Vocabulary temporary corporate resolve Section 2-Key Terms

  32. Rows of vermicelli noodles are hung out to dry in Bangladesh. The noodles are being prepared to celebrate the end of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. During Ramadan, Muslims fast all day––they do not eat, drink, or even chew gum from dawn to sunset. Muslims are expected to use this time to reflect on their spiritual lives. When Ramadan ends, Muslims celebrate their blessings with family and friends at Eid-al-Fitr, or the “Festival of Breaking the Fast.” Read this section to learn more about the Muslim nations in South Asia. Section 2-Picture This

  33. A B C Do you think industries should be put under government control? A. Yes B. No C.Not sure Section 2-Polling Question

  34. Grameen Bank of Bangladesh is a micro lender, or a financial institution that lends small amounts of money to people who have only their own honesty to offer as collateral. Grameen Bank especially likes to work with poor women in rural areas who want to start a business to better their lives, and the bank is pleased to find that almost 100 percent of its loans are paid back. Section 2

  35. Pakistan Pakistan is a Muslim country that is playing an increasingly important role in world affairs. Section 2

  36. Pakistan (cont.) Pakistan is a long, wide country wedged between Afghanistan, Iran, and India. Mountains rise in the far north, and the Indus River valley is located to the south. This area provides the fertile land Pakistan needs to support its growing population. Section 2

  37. Pakistan (cont.) With more than 160 million people, Pakistan is one of the world’s most populous nations, and its population continues to grow rapidly. The country’s death rate has declined, but its birthrate is still very high. Section 2

  38. Pakistan (cont.) Almost all the people of Pakistan are Muslims. Their religion gives them a common bond, but it does not always bridge their cultural differences. Pakistanis come from many ethnic groups, and each one has its own language, territory, and identity. Section 2

  39. Pakistan (cont.) In the 1970s, Pakistan’s industries were nationalized, or put under government control. Since the 1990s, however, many government-owned industries have been sold to private owners. Section 2

  40. Pakistan (cont.) Manufacturing and service industries are increasingly important to the economy. Incomes have risen, but most Pakistanis are still poor. Section 2

  41. Pakistan (cont.) About half of Pakistan’s people are farmers. A large irrigation system helps them grow crops such as sugarcane, wheat, rice, and cotton. Cotton cloth and clothing are among the country’s major exports. Section 2

  42. Pakistan (cont.) Manufacturing and service industries are another important part of the economy. Many people also work in cottage industries making metalware, pottery, and carpets. Section 2

  43. Pakistan (cont.) Even though Pakistan’s economy has grown, there are not enough jobs for everyone, so millions of people leave to become temporary workers in other countries. The money they send home helps support their families and also boosts the local economy in Pakistan. Section 2

  44. Pakistan (cont.) Pakistan is a federal republic, but democracy is limited. Since independence, the military has often forced elected leaders out of office and seized power as in 1999, when General Pervez Musharraf took over the government. Section 2

  45. Pakistan (cont.) Pakistan and India each claim the territory of Kashmir, and they have fought two wars for control of the area. Each country occupies a part of Kashmir and keeps troops there. Section 2

  46. Pakistan (cont.) In 1998 tensions rose when Pakistan and India tested nuclear weapons, but since then the countries have moved toward greater cooperation. In 2003 they agreed to a cease-fire in Kashmir. Section 2

  47. Pakistan (cont.) Two years later, they worked together to rebuild after an earthquake struck Pakistan and Kashmir. The two countries also have agreed to closer trade ties. Section 2

  48. A B C D Almost all the people in Pakistan are ____. A.Buddhist B.Christian C. Muslim D. Hindu Section 2

  49. Bangladesh The problems facing Bangladesh include overpopulation, severe poverty, and deadly floods. Section 2

  50. Bangladesh (cont.) With a large population and few resources, Bangladesh, established in 1971, is struggling for success as an independent nation. Bangladesh sits surrounded by India on three sides, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. Section 2