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ECONOMIC REVOLUTION. ECONOMIC REVOLUTION. EARLY 1800s FARM FAMILIES ARE SELF-SUFFICIENT AND ONLY BUY WHAT THEY CANNOT MAKE MID 1800s FARMERS BEGIN TO SPECIALIZE BY GROWING ONE OR TWO CASH CROPS PEOPLE BUY AND SELL GOODS RATHER THAN MAKE THEM (MARKET REVOLUTION)

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ECONOMIC REVOLUTION

  • EARLY 1800s FARM FAMILIES ARE SELF-SUFFICIENT AND ONLY BUY WHAT THEY CANNOT MAKE
  • MID 1800s FARMERS BEGIN TO SPECIALIZE BY GROWING ONE OR TWO CASH CROPS
  • PEOPLE BUY AND SELL GOODS RATHER THAN MAKE THEM (MARKET REVOLUTION)
  • PRIVATE CONTROL OF MEANS OF PRODUCTION TO COMPETE FOR PROFITS (CAPITALISM)
  • ENTREPRENEURS INVEST MONEY IN NEW INDUSTRIES CREATING JOBS AND WEALTH
  • BUSINESS CAPITAL PROVIDED BY BANKS FUELS GROWING ECONOMY
  • MADE MONEY BY CHARGING INTEREST ON LOANS
  • MADE LOANS WITH MONEY DEPOSITED BY CUTOMERS FOR SAFEKEEPING
slide3

INDUSTRY CHANGES WORK

  • RURAL MANUFACTORING
  • COTTAGE INDUSTRY – MANUFACTURERS SUPPLY MATERIALS WITH GOODS MADE IN HOMES
  • ENTREPRENEURS LIKE FRANCIS CABOT LOWELL OPEN WEAVING FACTORIES IN MASSACHUSETTS
  • BY 1830s LOWELL AND PARTNERS HAVE 8 FACTORIES WITH 6,000 EMPLOYEES
  • EARLY FACTORIES
  • EARLY 1800s ARTISANS STILL PRODUCE ITEMS PEOPLE CANNOT MAKE THEMSELVES
  • FACTORIES REVOLUTIONIZE INDUSTRY CAUSING THE COST OF HOUSEHOLD ITEMS TO DROP
  • WITH MACHINES UNSKILLED WORKERS REPLACE ARTISANS
slide4

LOWELL FACTORIES

  • LOWELL WORKERS
  • MOST FACTORY WORKERS ARE UNMARRIED FARM GIRLS UNDER CONTROL OF FEMALE SUPERVISOR
  • OWNERS HIRE FEMALES BECAUSE THEY CAN BE PAID LOWER WAGES THAN MEN
  • FACTORY PAY BETTER THAN ALTERNATIVES LIKE TEACHING, SEWING , AND DOMESTIC WORK
  • MOST GIRLS STAY AT LOWELL ONLY FOR A FEW YEARS
  • FACTORY GIRLS TAKE NEW IDEAS BACK TO THEIR HOMES
slide5

LOWELL FACTORIES

  • LOWELL CONDITIONS
  • WORKING FOR 10 TO 12 HOURS IN HEAT, COLD, POOR VENTILATION, AND POOR LIGHT CAUSES DISCOMFORT AND ILLNESS
  • AS CONDITIONS CONTINUE TO DETERIORATE 800 FACTORY GIRLS CONDUCT A STRIKE TO IMPROVE CONDITIONS
  • LOWELL STRIKES
  • 1834 STRIKE OVER PAY CUT AND 1836 STRIKE OVER HIGHER ROOM AND BOARD CHARGES
  • COMPANY PREVAILS BOTH TIMES AND FIRES STRIKE LEADERS
  • IN 1845 THE LOWELL FEMALE LABOR REFORM ASSOCIATION IS FOUNDED
slide6

WORKERS SEEK BETTER CONDITIONS

  • WORKERS UNIONIZE
  • ARTISANS FORM UNIONS AND BEGIN TO ALLY THEMSELVES WITH UNSKILLED WORKERS
  • 1830s-1840s SEE 1 TO 2% OF WORKERS ORGANIZED RESULTING IN DOZENS OF STRIKES
  • EMPLOYERS USE IMMIGRANTS AS STRIKE BREAKERS
  • IMMIGRATION INCREASES
  • EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION GROWS BETWEEN 1830 AND 1860
  • IRISH IMMIGRANTS SETTLE IN LARGE NORTHEASTERN CITIES
  • IRISH IMMIGRANTS DISLIKED BECAUSE THEY ARE CATHOLIC AND POOR AND RESENTED BECAUSE THEY WILL WORK FOR LESS
slide7

WORKERS SEEK BETTER CONDITIONS

  • NATIONAL WORKERS UNIONS
  • IN 1830s UNIONS FOR SAME TRADE UNITE TO STANDARDIZE WAGES AND CONDITIONS
  • IN 1834 ORGANIZATIONS FROM 6 INDUSTRIES FORM NATIONAL TRADES’ UNION
  • BANKERS AND OWNERS FORM ASSOCIATIONS AND COURTS DECLARE STRIKES ILLEGAL
  • COURT BACKS STRIKERS
  • IN 1842 THE MASSACHUSETTS SUPREME COURT UPHOLDS RIGHT TO STRIKE
slide8

ECONOMIC REVOLUTION

  • INVENTOR-ENTREPRENEURS DEVELOP NEW PRODUCTS
  • EARLY TRAINS APPEAR IN 1830s
  • CYRUS McCORMICK DEVELOPS MECHANICAL REAPER
  • SAMUEL F. B. MORSE DEVELOPS ELECTROMAGNETIC TELEGRAPH
  • JOHN DEERE DEVELOPS A STEEL PLOW
  • RICHARD HOE INVENTS THE ROTARY PRINTING PRESS
  • ELIAS HOWE AND I. M. SINGER CREATE THE SEWING MACHINE
  • FACTORY PRODUCTION OF CLOTHING REDUCES PRICES BY OVER 75% AND WORKERS BECOME CONSUMERS
  • FARMERS BEGIN USING MECHANIZED FARM EQUIPMENT TO BOOST OUTPUT
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MECHANICAL REAPER

AT THE AGE OF 22, MCCORMICK INVENTED THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL MECHANICAL REAPER IN 1831, WHICH LATER LED TO THE HARVESTING MACHINE INDUSTRY. MCCORMICK USHERED IN A NEW ERA OF AGRICULTURE MECHANIZATION. IN THIS NEW ERA FEWER FARMERS COULD FEED MORE NON-FARMERS. THIS MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR MILLIONS OF PEOPLE TO LEAVE FARMS FOR JOBS AND CAREERS IN THE NEW CITIES AND FACTORIES.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC TELEGRAPH

IN 1835, SAMUEL MORSE PROVED THAT SIGNALS COULD BE TRANSMITTED BY COPPER WIRE. HE INVENTED MORSE CODE WHICH USED DOTS AND DASHES TO TRANSMIT MESSAGES. IN 1838 CONGRESS FUNDED CONSTRUCTION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TELEGRAPH LINE FROM WASHINGTON TO BALTIMORE, A DISTANCE OF 40 MILES. THE FIRST OFFICIAL MESSAGE "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT?" OPENED THE COMPLETED LINE ON MAY 24, 1844.

MORSE CODE

slide12

STEEL PLOW

JOHN DEERE INVENTED A STEEL PLOW THAT COULD CUT THROUGH LAND THAT IN THE PAST COULD NOT BE CULTIVATED WITH IRON PLOWS.

HE WENT ON TO BUILD A LARGE AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT BUSINESS.

JOHN DEERE 1859 FACTORY

slide13

ROTARY PRINTING PRESS

IN 1843, RICHARD HOE INVENTED THE ROTARY PRINTING PRESS, A DESIGN THAT ALLOWED MUCH FASTER PRINTING THAN THE OLD STYLE OF PRINTING PRESS. WITH HOE’S DESIGN MORE CYLINDERS COULD BE PLACED AROUND THE MAIN CYLINDER, MOVING MUCH FASTER IN ONE DIRECTION. SOME VERSIONS OF THE PRESS WERE ABLE TO CREATE UP TO 20,000 IMPRESSIONS PER HOUR.

slide14

SEWING MACHINE

ISAAC SINGER

ELIAS HOWE

ELIAS HOWE INVENTED THE FIRST PRACTICAL SEWING MACHINE IN 1845, BUT WAS UNABLE TO SUCCESSFULLY MARKET THE PRODUCT IN THE U.S. OR ABROAD.

UPON HIS RETURN FROM EUROPE MANY DESIGNERS MODIFIED HIS MACHINE, THE MOST SUCCESSFUL OF WHICH WAS ISSAC SINGER, WHO WAS ABLE TO SELL THEM COMMERCIALLY ON A LARGE SCALE.

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TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS

  • ROBERT FULTON BUILT THE FIRST PRACTICAL STEAMBOAT FOR USE ON THE HUDSON RIVER
  • BY 1830s STEAMBOATS ON WESTERN RIVERS CUT FREIGHT COSTS AND SPEED UP TRAVEL
  • WATER TRANSPORT USED TO MOVE HEAVY MACHINERY AND RAW MATERIALS
  • ERIE CANAL CONNECTED LAKE ERIE WITH HUDSON RIVER
  • REDUCED TRAVEL TIME BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC COAST AND THE GREAT LAKES
  • INCREASED THE RATE OF SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION
  • CANALS CONNECT MIDWEST FARMERS TO NORTHEAST AND WORLD MARKETS
slide16

THIS PAINTING SHOWS THE "SENECA CHIEF," THE FLAGSHIP OF A FLOTILLA MAKING THE MAIDEN VOYAGE DOWN THE ERIE CANAL.

  • THE 363-MILE-LONG, $7 MILLION CANAL OPENED THE SHORTEST ROUTE BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC COAST'S FACTORIES AND THE GREAT LAKES, HELPING TO POSITION NEW YORK CITY AS AMERICA'S LEADING CITY.
  • THE CANAL BANKRUPT THE CONESTOGA WAGON FREIGHT CARRIERS.
slide17

TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS

  • IN THE 1840s SHIPPING OF GOODS BY RAILROAD MORE COSTLY THAN BY CANAL
  • EARLY TRAIN TRAVEL UNCOMFORTABLE FOR PASSENGERS
  • BY 1850s RAILROADS EXPAND AND COST DROPS WITH SAFETY INCREASED
  • RAILROADS PROVED FAR MORE DURABLE AND EFFICIENT FOR MOVING GOODS AND PEOPLE THAN ROADS
  • RAILROADS ARE FASTER CAN GO ALMOST ANYWHERE AND OPERATE IN WINTER
slide19

THE RACE ON AUGUST 28, 1830, BETWEEN PETER COOPER'S TOM THUMB LOCOMOTIVE AND A HORSE-DRAWN BALTIMORE AND OHIO (B&O) RAILROAD CAR DEMONSTRATED THE SUPERIORITY OF STEAM POWER. THOUGH THE HORSE EVENTUALLY WON, WHEN MECHANICAL FAILURE STOPPED THE LOCOMOTIVE, THE TOM THUMB HAD LED THE RACE, ROUNDING CURVES AT 15 MILES AN HOUR.

  • THE B&O, AMERICA'S FIRST COMMON CARRIER RAILROAD, WAS ORGANIZED WHEN BALTIMORE BEGAN TO LOSE BUSINESS TO NEW YORK'S ERIE CANAL. BECAUSE STEAM LOCOMOTIVES WERE EXPERIMENTAL, THE B&O INTENDED TO USE HORSES. BUT FAILURE TO MAKE EXPENSES, AND THE LACK OF SUCCESS OF WIND-DRIVEN SAILING CARS AND HORSE-POWERED TREADMILL CARS, OPENED THE WAY FOR PETER COOPER'S PLAN FOR STEAM POWER.
  • ALL HORSES ON THE B&O RAILROAD WERE REPLACED BY STEAM LOCOMOTIVES ON JULY 31, 1831.
slide22

IN 1855, INVENTOR RICHARD DUDGEON ASTOUNDED NEW YORKERS BY DRIVING FROM HIS HOME TO HIS PLACE OF BUSINESS IN A STEAM CARRIAGE. THE NOISE AND VIBRATION GENERATED BY THE "RED DEVIL STEAMER" FRIGHTENED HORSES SO BADLY THAT CITY AUTHORITIES CONFINED IT TO JUST ONE STREET…

  • DUDGEON RAN THE STEAM CARRIAGE MANY HUNDREDS OF MILES AND ONCE COVERED A MILE IN UNDER TWO MINUTES.
  • ALTHOUGH THE INVENTOR CLAIMED THE CARRIAGE COULD CARRY 10 PEOPLE AT 14 M.P.H. OR ONE BARREL OF ANTHRACITE COAL, IT WAS TOO FAR AHEAD OF ITS TIME AND FAILED TO GAIN POPULAR FAVOR.
slide23

NEWMARKETS

  • IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION MAKE REGIONS INTERDEPENDENT
  • BY 1838 THE NATIONAL ROAD EXTENDS FROM CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND TO SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS
  • GROWING LINKS LEAD TO DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION
slide24

REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION

  • SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE
  • MOST OF SOUTH AGRICULTURAL RELYING ON CASH CROPS OF COTTON, TOBACCO, AND RICE
  • SOUTH LACKS CAPITAL FOR FACTORIES WITH MONEY TIED UP IN LAND AND SLAVES
  • NORTHEAST SHIPPING AND MANUFACTURING
  • CANALS AND RAILROADS TURN NORTHEAST INTO CENTER OF AMERICAN COMMERCE
  • GREAT RISE IN MANUFACTURING RESULTS IN MORE, BETTER, AND LESS EXPENSIVE GOODS
  • MIDWEST FARMING
  • STEEL PLOW AND MECHANICAL REAPER PULLED BY HORSES ALLOW ONE FARMER TO DO WORK OF FIVE
  • FARMERS SHIFT FROM SUBSISTENCE FARMING TO GROWING CASH CROPS