Name and describe the 4 states of matter.
Crystalline solids have particles that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. Examples: salt, metals, gems.
Amorphous solids have randomly arranged particles. Examples: glass, plastics, wax.
SEE ANSWER TO QUESTION #1 ABOVE
Thermal expansion is the change in size of a material due to changes in temperature. As a material is heated, the particles gain energy and move faster. In solids, the particles are fixed in position but they vibrate more rapidly when heated. As particles collide with other adjacent particles, they are pushed apart from each other slightly. This results in an overall expansion of the material.
Boiling and evaporation are similar in that both involve liquid changing to gas and both require the addition of energy. They are different in the following ways: Boiling only occurs at the substance’s boiling point and involves large pockets of gas forming below the liquid’s surface. These pockets of gas then rise to the surface where they are released into the atmosphere. Evaporation occurs below the substance’s boiling point and involves individual particles leaving the surface of the liquid one at a time.
Region A—water is in the solid state and its temperature is rising as heat is being added.
Region B—the water is melting and its temperature is steady at 0˚C as heat is being added.
Region C—the water is in the liquid state and its temperature is rising as heat is being added.
Region D—the water is boiling and its temperature is steady at 100˚C as heat is being added.
Region E—the water is in the gas state and its temperature is rising as heat is added.
Melt/Freeze: 0˚C (32˚F)
Boil/Condense: 100˚C (212˚F)
When a substance reaches its freezing/melting point, it will melt if it is still a solid and heat is being added to it. If it is a liquid and heat is being removed, it will freeze.